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Human Relations

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HumanRelations­ MGMT611
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Lesson 17
BECOMING A LEADER-1
Quotations
Thetruly successful person is essentially a dissenter and is always dissatisfied with the status quo.
Everything is always impossible before it works.That is what entrepreneurs areall about--doing what
people have told them is impossible.
Leadership and leader
Leadershipplays significant role in managingand leading workers' behaviorsand expectations. It is
considered to be the job of a leader to give direction to the employees and getting the maximum output.
Bass(1990), in the handbook of leadershipbroadly defines leadership in the following words as cited by
Komin(1994),
...an interaction between two or more members of a group thatoften involves a structuring of the situation
and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leaders are agents of change, persons whoseacts
affect other people more than otherpeople's acts affect them.Leadership occurs when onegroup member
modifies the motivation or competence of others in the group.
Leadershipis the process of bringing aboutpositive changes andinfluencing others to achieve
organizational goals. Change and influence are the key words. People tend to be influenced by a person of
high--butnot unreasonable--self-confidence. Leaders should be a good follower as well.
Assessingleadership role
Leadership abilities can be assessed andmeasured through the instrument given below.
Indicate the extent to which you agreewith each of the followingstatement.
Use a 1-5 scale: 1=disagree strongly; 2=disagree; 3=neutral; 4=agree;5=agree strongly
Sr Dimension
DS D N A AS
1 It is enjoyable having people count on me for ideas and 1
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suggestions.
2 It would be accurate to saythat I have inspired otherpeople. 1
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3 It is good practice to ask people provocative questions about 1
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theirwork.
4 It is easy for me to complementothers.
1
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5 I like to cheer up people evenwhen my own spirits aredown. 1
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6 What my team accomplishes is more important than my 1
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personalglory.
7 Many people imitate my ideas.
1
2
3
4
5
8 Building team spirit is important to me.
1
2
3
4
5
9 I would enjoy coaching othermembers of the team.
1
2
3
4
5
10 It is important to me to recognize othersfor their 1
2
3
4
5
accomplishments.
11 I would enjoy entertaining visitors to my firmeven if it 1
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interferedwith my completing a report.
12 It would be fun for me to represent my team at gatherings 1
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outside my department.
13 The problems of my teammatesare my problems too.
1
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14 Resolving conflict is an activity I enjoy.
1
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15 I would cooperate with another unit in the organization even 1
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if I disagreed with the positiontaken by its members.
16 I am an idea generator on the job.
1
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17 It is fun for me to bargainwhenever I have the opportunity.   1
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18 Team members listen to me when I speak.
1
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19 People have asked to me to assume the leadership of an 1
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activityseveral times in my life.
20 I have always been a convincing person.
1
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Totalscore .........................
Scoring and interpretation: Calculateyour total score by adding the numbers ticked. A tentative
interpretation of the scoring is as follows:
90-100High readiness for the leadership role
60-89  Moderate readiness for the leadership role
40-59  Some uneasiness with the leadership role
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Lowreadiness for carrying out the leadership role
Source:DuBrin,Andrew J. `Human Relations: Careerand Personal Success',Pearson Prentice Hall,2005.
Effectiveleadership:
Effectiveleadership at the top of organizations is necessary for prosperity andeven survival. Yetleadership
is also needed at lowerlevels.
A team leader is a person whofacilitates and guides the efforts of a small groupthat is given someauthority
to govern itself.
An organization does not exist in a vacuum but is embedded in a societal/ cultural environment and the
latter exerts its pervasive influence on the organizational actors-employees andmanagers alike- in terms of
what they bring with them to the workplace, like patterns of values, beliefs and social relationship
behavioural patterns. (Komin,1994).
Every organization has its culture andthat culture expects roles of the employees /managers according to
their culture.
Character Attributes of Leaders:
Peoplemust have these attributes to be a leader. If these attributes arenot found in a person,he/she can be
a manager but not a leader.
1. Integrity
2. Honesty
3. Loyalty
4. Selflessness
5. Compassion
6. Competency
7. Respectfulness
8. Fairness
9. Responsibility
10.Decisiveness
11. Spiritual appreciation
12.Cooperativeness
Traits and Characteristics of EffectiveLeaders:
Effectiveleaders have the "rightstuff," meaning that certaininner qualities contribute to leadership
effectiveness in a wide variety of situations. Personsavoid taking responsibilities. It is difficult to make them
learn the ability of taking responsibility. Technical skills can be taught but developing the characteristic of
responsibility and how to lead others is difficult. Persons wait (Davis,67: 302) indefinitely, forsomeone else
to decide, rather than makedecisions themselves.
Effectivenessmeansthat the leader helps groupmembers accomplish theirobjectives withoutneglecting
satisfaction or morale. Achievement- motivated personsare the best source of competent leadership in an
organization and those persons withmore achievement motivationtend to rise the highest. (Davis, 67)
1.
Emotional Intelligence:
A current conception of emotional intelligence is so broad that it encompasses many traits and behaviours
related to leadership effectiveness, includingself-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and
relationshipmanagement.
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Self-awareness, the ability to understand yourown emotions, is the mostessential of the fouremotional
intelligence competencies.
Relationshipmanagement dealswith a variety of interpersonal skills.
Emotional intelligence can be developed throughworking on some of itscomponents such as learning to
controlyour temper, and developing empathy by listening to people carefully. Empathy means to put
oneself in someone's shoes.
2.
Trustworthiness:
Bothleaders themselves and groupmembers believe that being honest and sustaining trust, are important.
Today'scliché is that leaderswalk the talk.
Trustis a person's confidence in another individual's intentions andmotives, and in the sincerity of that
individual'swords. Actions should not contradict words.
It takes a leader a long time to build trust, yet one briefincident of untrustworthy behaviourcan destroy it.
3.
StrongWork Motivation and HighEnergy:
Leadership positions are mentally and physicallydemanding. Strong motivation is also needed to acceptthe
heavy responsibility that being a supervisorentails.
4.
CognitiveSkills and Openness to Experience:
Leadersneed to be mentally sharp. Problem-solving and intellectual skills are referred to collectively as
cognitive skills. A cognitive skill of major importance is knowledge of the business, or technical competence.
Closelyrelated to cognitive skills is the personality characteristic of openness to experience, a positive
orientationtoward learning.
5.
Assertiveness
Assertiveness is a widely recognized leadership trait. If you are self-confident, it is easier to be assertive with
people.Assertiveness helps leadersperform many tasks andachieve goals.
6.
Charisma:
An important quality forleaders at all levels is charisma,a type of charm and magnetism thatinspires
others. An effective leader usually needs somedegree of this quality, althoughsome effective leadersare
notcharismatic. Here we focus on three of the many characteristics of charismatic leaders.
a.
Vision.Effectiveleaders create a visualimage of where the organization, or unit, is headed. Effective
leadersproject ideas and imagesthat excite people, and therefore inspire employees to do theirbest.
Passion,Enthusiasm, and Excitement.  Because of their contagiousexcitement, charismatic
b.
leadersstimulate group members.Enthusiasm helps build good relationships with team members,and
excitement is contagious. The leadercan express enthusiasm verbally and nonverbally throughgestures,
nonsexualtouching, and so forth.
c.
Sense of Humor:
Humor is a component of charisma, and a contributor to leadership effectiveness.Humor helps leaders
influence people by reducing tension, relieving boredom, and defusing anger. Themost effective form of
humor is tied to the situation rather thantelling rehearsedjokes.
7.
The Entrepreneurial Spirit:
A leader should have the ability to take initiatives andcalculated risks. Corporate leaders as well as the self-
employedcan display an entrepreneurial spirit.For example, a team leaderwith an entrepreneurial spiritwill
searchfor new activities for the group.
References:
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Davis, K. (1967). Human Relations at Work: The dynamics of Organizational behaviour.
Thirdedition.
McGraw-Hill,Inc.
Dubrin, A.J. (2005). Human Relations:Career and Personal Success.Upper Saddle River, NewJersey,
07458.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  3. PERSONALITY AND STRESS:Personality, PERSONAL TOOLS TO CONTROL STRESS
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  11. CONFLICT RESOLUTION:WHY SO MUCH CONFLICT EXISTS, TECHNIQUES FOR RESOLVING CONFLICTS
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  31. NEW MODEL OF CAREER ADVANCEMENT:Career portability, HUMAN RELATIONS SELF-ASSESSMENT
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People