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Lesson 06
BASICS OF HTML
Hypertext links are used to connect HTML documents. Text can be links. Images can be links. Links can by
used for email also. An attribute `href' is used in anchor tag <A>, and its value is set as the URL of a web
page or a file name which is required to be opened by clicking the hyperlink. Content enclosed between
<A> and </A> becomes clickable. See the following example:
<HTML>
<BODY>
<H1>Computer Science</H1>
Welcome to <A HREF=http://www.vu.edu>Virtual University</A> in
Pakistan
</BODY>
</HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 1 below.
Fig. 1
In order to create a mailto link, one should use the following syntax: <A
HREF=mailto:vtv@hotmail.com> email address</A>
Changing colors in a page
In order to provide a specific background color to a web page, an attribute `bgcolor' is used in the body tag.
We can also use `text' and `link' attributes, respectively, in the body tag to assign font colors to our text and
hyperlinks, as indicated below:
<BODY bgcolor="Green" text="white" link="red"> Instead of giving the color name as value of
`bgcolor' one can also provide value in terms of a six digit code based on hexadecimal numbers called RGB
values, e.g, #00FF00 refers to pure green color. RGB values are set according to following rule:
Red Green Blue
Where we want to provide an image as a background for the page then the `background' attribute is used in
the body tag keeping its value as the name of that image file, e.g, <BODYbackground="filename">.
Consider the following example:
<HTML>
<BODY bgcolor=yellow text=red link=blue >
<H1>Computer Science</H1>
Welcome to <A HREF=http://www.vu.edu>Virtual University</A> in
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Pakistan
</BODY></HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 2 below.
Fig. 2
Meta information
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Spanning text across multiple rows or columns
Attributes `colspan' and `rowspan' are used in <TD> tag for spanning the cells to a particular no. of
columns or rows, respectively, as is shown in the examples below:
<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE> Example - COLSPAN </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <TABLE
BORDER="1"  align=center>  <CAPTION>Spanning  the  text</CAPTION>  <TR>  <TD
COLSPAN="2">This line is extended to two columns</TD> <TD>This does not</TD> </TR>
<TR> <TD>First Column</TD> <TD>Second Column</TD>
<TD>Third Column</TD> </TR>
</TABLE>
</BODY>
</HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 3 below:
Fig. 3
<HTML>  <HEAD><TITLE>Spanning  Text</TITLE>  </HEAD>  <BODY>  <TABLE
BORDER="1">
<CAPTION>Example
-
ROWSPAN</CAPTION>
<TR>
<TD
ROWSPAN="2">This line is stretched to two rows</TD> <TD>First Row</TD> </TR> <TR>
<TD>Second Row</TD> </TR> <TR> <TD>This does not</TD> <TD>Third Row</TD>
</TR> </TABLE> </BODY></HTML> Result is shown in Fig. 4 below.
Fig. 4
Table tag attributes
Border - <table border="5"> displays the cell boundaries, accordingly. Width - <table width="75%> sets
the width of the table, accordingly. Height - <table height="100%"> sets the height of the table,
accordingly. Cellpadding - <table cellpadding="10"> refers to distance between the cells in pixels.
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Cellspacing - <table cellspacing="5"> refers to distance between cell boundaries andcontent enclosed in
terms of pixels. Color - <table bgcolor="#cccccc"> provides background color to the table (you can also
provide color name instead of RGB value code). <table background="tablebg.gif"> supplies an image in
the table background.
Attributes for <TD> tag
Width - <td width="50%"> specifies width of a cell with reference to the table width. Align - <td
align="center"> is used to align the text in a cell accordingly (you can also use left and right as values of
`align'). Valign- <td valign="top"> is used to vertically align the text in a cell (you can also use bottom or
middle as values of `valign').
Using a table to set up a page with a margin
Set the table's height to 100% using the <table> tag's height attribute. First column is the margin. Use
`bgcolor' or `background' attribute to define color or image for the margin. Also set width of the margin as
desired. Second column is where one can put all the regular text and the graphics. Note the following
example:
<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>A Page with a Left-Hand Margin</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY
LEFTMARGIN="0" TOPMARGIN="0" MARGINWIDTH="0" MARGINHEIGHT="0"> <TABLE
HEIGHT="100%"> <TR>
<TD BACKGROUND="image2.gif" WIDTH="100"> </TD> <TD VALIGN="TOP"> This
section contains the contents of your web page. </TD> </TR> </TABLE> </BODY> </HTML>
Result is shown in Fig. 5 below.
Fig. 5
` ' is the code for a blank space in HTML.
Forms
A form is a web page populated with text boxes, drop-down lists and commands buttons to get information
from the user. Its basic tag is <form> and </form>. `Action' and `Method' are the two attributes used in
the form tag as shown below to transport the information received form the user to a particular URL or a
file: <Form action=http://www.forms.com Method=post>
Types
Submit/Reset button Text boxes Text area Check boxes Radio buttons Lists
Submit and reset button
To create a submit or reset button use the following instruction within the form tag: <Input type="submit"
value="label"> <Input type="Reset" value="label">
"Label" is the value that appears on the button. You may not want to use `value' attribute. When the submit
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button is clicked, the form data is shipped to the URL specified by the <form> tag's action attribute.
Text boxes and text area
To create a text box the value of `type' attribute is set as `text' in the input tag. To create abigger box called
text area we use <Textarea> and </Textarea> tag. The size of the text area is fixed on the basis of value of
attributes `cols' and `rows'. Note the following example:
<HTML> <HEAD><TITLE>Text Area Example</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <H3>Today's
Burning
Question</H3>
<FORM
ACTION="http://www.gov.pk/scritps/test.asp"
METHOD="POST"> First Name: <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="First">
<P>
Last Name: <INPUT TYPE="TEXT" NAME="Last">
<P>
Today's <I>Burning Question</I>: <B>How to make Pakistan a developed
country?</B>
<P>
Please enter your answer in the text area below: <BR> <TEXTAREA NAME="Answer" ROWS="10"
COLS="60"> </TEXTAREA>
<P>
<INPUT  TYPE="SUBMIT"  VALUE="I  Know!">  <INPUT  TYPE="RESET">  </FORM>
</BODY> </HTML> Result is shown in Fig. 6 below.
Fig. 6
In the above example `name' attribute used in `input' and `textarea' tags is the unique name for the field. A
field name is the information normally used by the server side to respond to the client side after the form
has been submitted to it.
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