ZeePedia buy college essays online


Software Project Management

<<< Previous Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design Next >>>
 
img
Software Project Management (CS615)
LECTURE # 16
2. Software Development Fundamentals
Technical Fundamentals
2.12
Design
Management Aspect
­
Major design styles
·  Object, structured, data-structured design
­
Foundational design concepts
·  Information hiding, abstraction, encapsulation, Inheritance, basic
algorithms & data structures, ...
Attributes of SW Design
Software design is actually a multi step process that focuses on four
distinct attributes of a program:
­ Data structure,
­ Software architecture,
­ Interface representations, and procedural (algorithmic) detail.
The design process translates requirements into a representation of the
software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins.
Like requirements, the design is documented and becomes part of the
software configuration.
Design is the technical kernel of software engineering. During design,
progressive refinements of data structure, architecture, interfaces, and
procedural detail of software components are developed, reviewed, and
documented.
Design results in representations of software that can be assessed for
quality. A number of fundamental software design principles and concepts
have been proposed over the past four decades.
Design principles guide the software engineer as the design process
proceeds. Design concepts provide basic criteria for design quality.
107
img
Software Project Management (CS615)
a. Code generation
The design must be translated into a machine-readable form. The
code generation step performs this task. If design is performed in a
detailed  manner,  code  generation  can  be  accomplished
mechanistically.
b. Testing
Once code has been generated, program testing begins. The testing
process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring
that all statements have been tested and on the functional externals;
that is, conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined
input will produce actual results that agree with required results.
Key Features of Design
A number of fundamental software design principles and concepts have
been proposed over the past four decades. Design principles guide the
software engineer as the design process proceeds. Design concepts provide
basic criteria for design quality.
Support
Support
Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the
customer (a possible exception is embedded software). Change will occur
because errors have been encountered, because the software must be
adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment (e.g. a
change required because of a new operating system or peripheral device),
or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements.
Software support/maintenance reapplies each of the preceding phases to
an existing program rather than a new one.
Modularity
Modularity (in both program and data) and the concept of abstraction
enable the designer to simplify and reuse software components.
Refinement provides a mechanism for representing successive layers of
functional detail. Program and data structure contribute to an overall view
of software architecture, while procedure provides the detail necessary for
algorithm implementation.
108
img
Software Project Management (CS615)
Information hiding and functional independence provide heuristics for
achieving effective modularity.
We try to solve the problem by rushing through the design process so that
enough time will be left at the end of the project to uncover errors that
were made because we rushed through the design process.
The moral is this: Don't rush through it! Design is worth the effort.
Standard design approaches
·
Exception handling,
·
Localization
·
Portability
·
Reuse
·
Input/output
·
Memory management,
·
Performance
2.13
Construction
­ Coding practices
Naming, layout, documentation
­ Data-related concepts
Scope, persistence, binding time
­ Data usage guidelines
Bytes, arrays
­ Use of construction tools
Programming environment, group work support (documents, code),
code libraries & generators
2.14
Software Configuration management
Software configuration management (SCM) takes care of changes in a
software  process.  SCM  identifies  controls,  audits,  and  reports
modifications that occur during software development. SCM helps
maintain the integrity of configurable items produced during software
development. SCM is an integral part of Software Quality Assurance
(SQA). SCM involves assessing the impact of the changes made during
SQA activities and making decisions based on cost and benefit analysis.
SCM is used to establish and maintain integrity of software items and
ensure that they can be traced easily. SCM helps define a library structure
for storage and retrieval of software items.
109
img
Software Project Management (CS615)
·
To ensure that project stays consistent over time: You need to:
a)
Evaluate proposed changes
b)
Track the changes
c)
Control the Version
d)
Check integrity of Source code, documents, plans, design
e)
Ensure quality
Software Configuration Management Activities
SCM is used to establish and maintain integrity of software items and
ensure that they can be traced easily. Using SCM, you can define a library
structure for storage and retrieval of software items. SCM needs to be
performed at all phases in the SDLC of a software project. The various
SCM activities are:
1.
Identifying Objects
2.
Controlling Versions
3.
Controlling Changes
4.
Auditing
5.
Communicating Changes
1. Identifying Objects
The first activity in SCM involves identifying software configurable
items (SCIs). SCI is an aggregation of software that is designated for
configuration management. It is treated as a single entity in the
configuration management process. For example, design documents,
program code, test case, and custom requirement document are
configurable items.
You can use the Item Traceability Matrix to identify SCIs at the end of
each phase. A sample of Item Traceability Matrix is displayed in Table
1. In the table, you can see the different SCIs in different phases of the
development process.
110
img
Software Project Management (CS615)
Table 1: Item Traceability Matrix
Phase
Deliverable
Requirement
Name
Design
Construction
Testing
Analysis
Requirement
Requirement
Analysis
Analysis Document
Document
Functional
Specification
Design
Document and
Document
Program
Specification
Document
Code A
Code
Code B
Code C
Unit Test
Cases
Test Document
System Test
Cases
Database
Database Design
Design
Specification
Document
To identify SCls, you need to first breakdown the project deliverable
to the SCI level. Each phase in the project has its own deliverables. To
trace the deliverables, you need to map the SCls to the phases in which
they are delivered.
2. Controlling Versions
Version control combines procedures and tools to manage different
versions of configuration objects that are created during software
product development. To control versions, you can use Version
Control Register. In Version Control Register, you enter the details of
components, such as component identification numbers, their versions,
and dates of validity. It is advisable to release a baseline after a version
is released. Baseline is a specification or a product that is formally
reviewed and agreed upon. This serves as the basis for further
development. Baseline can be changed only through formal change
control procedures. A baseline consists of a set of SCIs that are
logically related to each other. Baselines are established when
subsequent changes to the SCIs need to be controlled. Version control
is essential so that everybody uses only the latest version. Any kind of
version mismatch might result in rework.
111
Table of Contents:
  1. Introduction & Fundamentals
  2. Goals of Project management
  3. Project Dimensions, Software Development Lifecycle
  4. Cost Management, Project vs. Program Management, Project Success
  5. Project Management’s nine Knowledge Areas
  6. Team leader, Project Organization, Organizational structure
  7. Project Execution Fundamentals Tracking
  8. Organizational Issues and Project Management
  9. Managing Processes: Project Plan, Managing Quality, Project Execution, Project Initiation
  10. Project Execution: Product Implementation, Project Closedown
  11. Problems in Software Projects, Process- related Problems
  12. Product-related Problems, Technology-related problems
  13. Requirements Management, Requirements analysis
  14. Requirements Elicitation for Software
  15. The Software Requirements Specification
  16. Attributes of Software Design, Key Features of Design
  17. Software Configuration Management Vs Software Maintenance
  18. Quality Assurance Management, Quality Factors
  19. Software Quality Assurance Activities
  20. Software Process, PM Process Groups, Links, PM Phase interactions
  21. Initiating Process: Inputs, Outputs, Tools and Techniques
  22. Planning Process Tasks, Executing Process Tasks, Controlling Process Tasks
  23. Project Planning Objectives, Primary Planning Steps
  24. Tools and Techniques for SDP, Outputs from SDP, SDP Execution
  25. PLANNING: Elements of SDP
  26. Life cycle Models: Spiral Model, Statement of Requirement, Data Item Descriptions
  27. Organizational Systems
  28. ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING, Organizational Management Tools
  29. Estimation - Concepts
  30. Decomposition Techniques, Estimation – Tools
  31. Estimation – Tools
  32. Work Breakdown Structure
  33. WBS- A Mandatory Management Tool
  34. Characteristics of a High-Quality WBS
  35. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  36. WBS- Major Steps, WBS Implementation, high level WBS tasks
  37. Schedule: Scheduling Fundamentals
  38. Scheduling Tools: GANTT CHARTS, PERT, CPM
  39. Risk and Change Management: Risk Management Concepts
  40. Risk & Change Management Concepts
  41. Risk Management Process
  42. Quality Concept, Producing quality software, Quality Control
  43. Managing Tasks in Microsoft Project 2000
  44. Commissioning & Migration