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Consumer Psychology

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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
LESSON34
ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE
CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
Understanding:
 Attitude Formation
 Attitude Change
Attitude Formation
How do people, especially young people form their initial general attitudes towards clothing they wear, e.g. casual
wear, and business attire? How do they form attitudes towards certain brands of clothing? How do friends and
family members come to admire certain celebrities? Why some attitudes do seem to persist infinitely while others
change fairly often?
Our examination of attitude formation is divided into three areas:
How attitudes are learned?
Sources of influence on attitude formation?
Impact of personality on attitude formation?
How attitudes are learned?
Attitude formation refers to the shift from having no attitude toward an object to having some attitude toward the
object. The shift from no attitude to attitude formation is the result of learning.
Consumers often purchase new products that are associated with a favorably viewed brand. Their favorable
attitude toward the brand is the result of repeated satisfactions with other products produced by the same
company. The behavior can be explained in terms of classical Conditioning
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3: After Repeated Pairings
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
Attitude Formation without Prior Knowledge
Sometimes consumers purchase a product without prior knowledge or attitude towards it e.g. the last bottle of
aspirin on the gas station min mart.
Consumers Experiments
Sometimes consumers make trial purchases of new brands from product categories in which they have little
personal involvement. If the find the purchased brand to be satisfactory, they are likely to develop a favorable
attitude toward it
Information about the Products
In situations in which consumers are seek to solve a problem or satisfy a need, they are likely to form attitudes
(either positive or negative) about products on the basis of information exposure and their own cognition
(knowledge and beliefs). The more information consumers have about a product more likely are they to form
attitudes toward it, either positive or negative. Regardless of available information consumers are not always ready
or willing to process product related information
Formation of attitudes is strongly influenced by consumers' personal experience, influence of family and friends
and direct marketing of the companies.
Strategies of Attitude Change
Much of is true about attitude formation is also true about attitude change. Attitude changes are learned and
influenced by personal experience, sources of information, and personality.
Altering consumer attitudes is a key strategic consideration for marketers. Marketers who are fortunate enough to
be market leaders and enjoy a significant amount of consumer goodwill and loyalty the overriding goal is to fortify
the existing positive attitudes. The objective of the competitor marketers is to change the attitudes of the
customers of the market leaders and win them over.
Attitude Change Strategies available to the marketers include:
Changing the consumers basic motivational function
Associating the product with admired group or events
Resolving two conflicting attitudes
Changing consumers beliefs about competitor's brands
1. Changing the consumers basic motivational function
An effective strategy of changing consumer attitudes towards a product is to make particular needs prominent.
One method of changing motivation is called Functional Approach
According to functional approach consumers attitudes can be classified in terms of four functions:
a) Utilitarian function
b) Ego-Defensive Function
c) Value Expressive Function
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Consumer Psychology (PSY - 514)
VU
d) Knowledge Function
a. Utilitarian Function
Certain brand attitudes are held because of utility. When a product has been useful and helpful for us in the past,
our attitude towards it tends to be favorable. One way of changing attitudes in favor of products is by showing
people that it can serve a utilitarian purpose that they may not have considered. Dishwashing detergent bar that
also keeps the skin of hands glowing and leaves its refreshing scent in your hands
b. Ego-Defensive Function
Most people want to protect their self images from inner feelings of doubt ­ they want to replace their uncertainty
with a sense of security and personal confidence. Some Ads acknowledge this need of consumers to increase both
their relevance to the consumer and likelihood of favorable attitude change by offering reassurance to the
consumers' self images. For example
A retailer of fashion clothing stresses in its headline:
o  When I believe in myself everything becomes possible
A lighters manufacturing company countering the trends towards disposable lighters
o  True love is not disposable
c. Value Expressive Function
Attitudes are an expression of consumers' general values, lifestyle and outlook. By knowing the target consumers'
attitudes marketers can anticipate their values, lifestyles or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their
advertising and direct marketing efforts. For example if consumer segments generally hold a positive attitude
towards owning the latest designer jeans, then their attitudes towards new brands of designer jeans are likely to
reflect that orientation. Similarly if a segment of consumers has an attitude towards being high tech then their
attitudes towards thin wall mounted HDTV;s are likely to reflect this viewpoint.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer Behavior
  2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Consumer research
  3. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Marketing Mix, Product, Price
  4. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Customer Value, Perceived Value
  5. VALUE AND RETENTION FOCUSED MARKETING AND CONSUMER DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  6. CONSUMER RESEARCH:Quantitative Research, Qualitative Research
  7. MAJOR STEPS IN CONSUMER RESEARCH PROCESS:Design of Primary research
  8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES:ATTITUDE SCALES
  10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS & DATA COLLECTION METHODS
  11. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT, SAMPLING, AND DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORTING
  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION AND ITS BASES:Geographical Segmentation
  13. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION
  14. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: SOCIOCULTURAL SEGMENTATION USE RELATED SEGMENTATION USAGE SITUATION SEGMENTATION
  15. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Intrinsic Cues
  16. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: HYBRID SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES
  17. MARKET SEGMENTATION IMPLEMENTING SEGMENTATION STRATEGIES ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES CULTURE
  18. HOW CULTURE IS LEARNT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Formal Learning
  19. CULTURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  20. MEASUREMENT OF CULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Consumer Fieldwork
  21. SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  22. AGE AND GENDER SUBCULTURE CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
  23. BASES FOR SEGMENTATION: BENEFIT SEGMENTATION:Market Segmentation
  24. SOCIAL CLASS CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Occupation
  25. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Affluent Consumer
  26. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Membership Group
  27. CONSUMER SOCIAL CLASSES CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES:Shopping Groups
  28. UNDERSTANDING PERSONALITY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
  29. CONSUMER PERSONALITY, TRAIT THEORY AND SELF IMAGES
  30. CONSUMER MOTIVATION:Needs, Goals, Generic Goals
  31. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING:Intentional and Incidental Learning, Implications for Marketers
  32. INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING, INFORMATION PROCESSING AND MEMORY
  33. ATTITUDES:Characteristics of Attitudes, Attitudes have consistency
  34. ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE:How attitudes are learned?
  35. ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES:Resolving two conflicting attitudes
  36. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER DECISION MAKING:Decision Complexity
  37. Problem Recognition, Search and Evaluation and Decision and Purchase
  38. Decision and Purchase:Consumer Decision Rules, Output, Relationship Marketing
  39. Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Product Set up and Use
  40. Marketing Implications of Decisions Related to Post Purchase:Understanding
  41. Post Purchase Evaluation:Determinants of Satisfaction, Consumer Complaint Behavior
  42. Post Purchase Dissonance:Dissonance Reduction, Marketing Implications
  43. Consumerism:Roots of Consumerism, The Nature of Consumerism
  44. Consumerism Issues and Responses:Environmental Concerns, Consumer Privacy
  45. Review Consumer Psychology Course:Consumer Research, Consumerism