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Social Psychology

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Social Psychology (PSY403)
VU
Lesson 22
ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR
Aims:
Introducing the concept of relationship between attitude and behavior.
Objectives
·  Describe models of the relationship between attitudes and behavior
·  Understanding factors determining link between attitude and behavior.
The Attitude-Behaviour Relationship
During the 1970s a crisis of "confidence" in the attitude concept developed as a result of weak
relationship between attitude and behaviour.
Psychologists started questioning whether attitudes still should be considered a central concept of
social psychology.
Difficulty was first demonstrated by LaPierre in 1934; in the US in the 30's there was widespread
prejudice again Asians. LaPierre went with a young Chinese couple across the U.S for 3 months. The
question under consideration was `Would restaurant/hotel managers refuse to serve the couple?'
Only 1 out of 66 hotels turned them away, 1 out of 250 restaurants refused service
Later a letter sent asking if they would serve Chinese
Of the 128 replies 90% said they would refuse to serve Chinese people
When do attitudes predict behaviour?
1. Factors affecting attitude-behaviour relationship
Specificity
Test-retest reliability
Private vs. public self-awareness
Attitude strength
Attitude accessibility
2. Theory of planned behavior
1. Factors affecting attitude-behaviour relationship
Specificity
In LaPierre study Behaviour was specific (the Chinese couple) but attitude was general (would you
serve Chinese people in general)
Specific attitudes ----> Specific behaviour
Test-retest reliability
The longer the time between attitude measurement and behaviour, more likely the attitude will change
Private vs. Public self-awareness
Privately self-aware ----> behave in line with own attitude
Publicly self-aware ----> behave in line with public attitude
William Froming et al. (1982) pre-tested students regarding their attitude toward physical punishment;
From this group selected those having negative attitude toward physical punishment; Later the
participants were asked to administer shocks to people; The results showed that participants behaved
according to their private and public self-awareness; those private self-conscious and looking
themselves in mirror administered shocks of lesser intensity. Those facing audience worked according to
their public self-awareness.
86
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Social Psychology (PSY403)
VU
Attitude-Behavior consistency due to type of self-awareness is displayed in the following graph.
Attitude-Behavior consistency due
Attitude strength
to type of self-awareness
·
Greater
information
about  attitude  object:
5
having more information
4.5
about an attitude object
4
3.5
is often sufficient to
3
strengthen
people's
2.5
attitude.
Mean shock level
2
·
Greater
personal
1.5
involvement
with
1
attitude object
0.5
·
Greater direct experience
0
with
attitude:
With
Mirror
Control
Audience
condition
condition
condition
having
a
direct
experience, people tend
to  engage  in  all  3
components of attitude:
affective, cognitive, and behavioral.
All three factors lead to greater attitude strength and greater attitude-behaviour consistency
·
Study showing consistency between environmental attitude and knowledge and behaviour
(Kallgren & Wood, 1986): People were questioned first about their attitude and knowledge about
environmental issues; later were asked to participate in pro-environmental activities. Those who
know a lot showed more consistency between attitude and behavior.
Attitude accessibility
The availability heuristic (tendency to judge the probability of an event; recall)
The more accessible an attitude the greater attitude-behaviour consistency
Measured by speed of response to questions concerning the attitude object (Fazio & Williams, 1986)
2. The theory of planned behaviour (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)
People's conscious decisions (intentions) to engage in specific actions are determined by three factors...
1. Determinants of attitudes
One's beliefs about the consequences of performing the behaviour
Ones evaluation of the possible consequences
2. Determinants of subjective norms
The perceived expectations of significant others
One's motivation to confirm to these expectations
3. Determinants of perceived control
One's perception of how easy or difficult to perform the behaviour, e.g., Quitting smoking
Attitude is positive (I want to stop smoking)
Subjective norms are positive (family wants you to stop smoking)
Perceived control is low (I'm addicted!)
Not an additive effect, if one of the three components is strongly anti- the behaviour, intention will be
low and the behaviour will not be carried out
87
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Social Psychology (PSY403)
VU
Diagram illustrating theory of planned behavior
Theory of planned behavior
·
Criticisms on the theory of
planned behaviour
Attitude toward
Spontaneous
unintentional
a behavior
behaviour
(e.g.,
attitude
accessibility)
Habits.
Both of these involve little
Subjective norms
Intention
Behavior
reasoned
thought
(behavioural intention)
TPB is good for explaining
logical reasoned behaviours
but  cannot  account  for
Perceived behavioral
automatic behaviour
control
We are, after all, cognitive
misers...
Reading
·  Franzoi, S. (2003). Social Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 6.
88
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Readings, Main Elements of Definitions
  2. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Social Psychology and Sociology
  3. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Scientific Method
  4. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:Evaluate Ethics
  5. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PROCESS, DESIGNS AND METHODS (CONTINUED)
  6. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OBSERVATIONAL METHOD
  7. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CORRELATIONAL METHOD:
  8. CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
  9. THE SELF:Meta Analysis, THE INTERNET, BRAIN-IMAGING TECHNIQUES
  10. THE SELF (CONTINUED):Development of Self awareness, SELF REGULATION
  11. THE SELF (CONTINUE…….):Journal Activity, POSSIBLE HISTORICAL EFFECTS
  12. THE SELF (CONTINUE……….):SELF-SCHEMAS, SELF-COMPLEXITY
  13. PERSON PERCEPTION:Impression Formation, Facial Expressions
  14. PERSON PERCEPTION (CONTINUE…..):GENDER SOCIALIZATION, Integrating Impressions
  15. PERSON PERCEPTION: WHEN PERSON PERCEPTION IS MOST CHALLENGING
  16. ATTRIBUTION:The locus of causality, Stability & Controllability
  17. ATTRIBUTION ERRORS:Biases in Attribution, Cultural differences
  18. SOCIAL COGNITION:We are categorizing creatures, Developing Schemas
  19. SOCIAL COGNITION (CONTINUE…….):Counterfactual Thinking, Confirmation bias
  20. ATTITUDES:Affective component, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  21. ATTITUDE FORMATION:Classical conditioning, Subliminal conditioning
  22. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR:Theory of planned behavior, Attitude strength
  23. ATTITUDE CHANGE:Factors affecting dissonance, Likeability
  24. ATTITUDE CHANGE (CONTINUE……….):Attitudinal Inoculation, Audience Variables
  25. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:Activity on Cognitive Dissonance, Categorization
  26. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION (CONTINUE……….):Religion, Stereotype threat
  27. REDUCING PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION:The contact hypothesis
  28. INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION:Reasons for affiliation, Theory of Social exchange
  29. INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION (CONTINUE……..):Physical attractiveness
  30. INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS:Applied Social Psychology Lab
  31. SOCIAL INFLUENCE:Attachment styles & Friendship, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS
  32. SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINE………):Normative influence, Informational influence
  33. SOCIAL INFLUENCE (CONTINUE……):Crimes of Obedience, Predictions
  34. AGGRESSION:Identifying Aggression, Instrumental aggression
  35. AGGRESSION (CONTINUE……):The Cognitive-Neo-associationist Model
  36. REDUCING AGGRESSION:Punishment, Incompatible response strategy
  37. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR:Types of Helping, Reciprocal helping, Norm of responsibility
  38. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE………):Bystander Intervention, Diffusion of responsibility
  39. GROUP BEHAVIOR:Applied Social Psychology Lab, Basic Features of Groups
  40. GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE…………):Social Loafing, Deindividuation
  41. up Decision GROUP BEHAVIOR (CONTINUE……….):GroProcess, Group Polarization
  42. INTERPERSONAL POWER: LEADERSHIP, The Situational Perspective, Information power
  43. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN COURT
  44. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY IN CLINIC
  45. FINAL REVIEW:Social Psychology and related fields, History, Social cognition