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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 22
Conflict is resolved in many ways. Arbitration, mediation, adjudication, and negotiation are some of the
methods of conflict management. We will focus in this lecture on understanding negotiation.
Negotiation has different styles. The choice of negotiation style depends upon the nature of conflict and the
nature of disputants. Following are the main points of our discussion.
·  Why Deutsch's theory of cooperation and competition doesn't tell the whole story about behavior
in a conflict.
·  How it is possible to cooperate without being taken advantage of.
·  The five negotiation styles.
·  Dual concern model
Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917 - 1963) U.S. president. Inaugural address as president of the United States
Making a billion dollars on a new deal is not difficult for me. Making it in a way that gives me satisfaction is
the real challenge.
Adnan Khasoggi (1935 - ) Saudi Arabian entrepreneur. Daily Express (London)
Compromise used to mean that half a loaf was better than no bread. Among modern statesmen it really
seems to mean that half a loaf is better than a whole loaf.
G. K. Chesterton (1874 - 1936) British writer and poet.
Negotiation is one of three primary methods of alternative dispute resolution. A dialogue, discussion, or
written exchange aimed at resolving a dispute or consummating a transaction.
Virtually all cooperative conflicts are resolved through discussion and negotiation.
Negotiation style
It is a strategy, not a tactic.
Choose a negotiation style that is suitable for the conflict you are dealing with. Most of us have our own
biases about choosing different styles of negotiation according to one's strengths and weaknesses.
Deutch's Model
According to Deutsch's model, conflict is either cooperative or competitive. This approach is advantageous
as it shows the course of conflict rather than the behaviors of individual disputants or agents.
However it fails:
(i) To describe the self perception of disputants, this is very important to know.
(ii) Cooperation and competition are cyclical in nature and Deutsch's model refers to conflict, not the
positions of individual disputants;
(iii) According to this model, there is only one form of cooperation. Actually there could be different forms
of cooperative strategies to resolve conflict.
For example `pushover' cooperation strategy makes the other disputant cooperate forcefully and joint
problem solving strategy entails looking after the interests of the other party.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Deutch's Model
Cooperation: High
Competition: High
concern for other
concern for self
Dual Concern Model
1. The avoiding style, which represents a low level of concern for both self and other;
2. The dominating (or competing) style, which represents a high level of concern for self and a low level of
concern for other
3. The obliging (or accommodating) style, which represents a low level of concern for self and a high level of
concern for other
4. The integrating (or collaborating or problem-solving) style, which represents a high level of concern for both self
and other
5. The compromising style, which represents a moderate level of concern for self and other
Pareto-efficiency: The quality of a settlement agreement or another social arrangement to maximize
overall value to the participants by allocating specific resources to those who value them most.
Avoiding Style
A turtle is a symbol for the avoiding style because it can avoid
everything by pulling its head and legs into its shell to get away from
A turtle also chooses other styles at times. It does not always choose to
stay in its shell, because it would miss out on everything from eating to
Dominating or competition style
It represents a high level of concern for self and a low level of
concern for other
A lion can be a symbol of a competitive style. The lion's roar helps
the lion to satisfy its interests. For example, if the lion's family is
hungry and needs food, the lion may use its strength and loud roar
to get the food because it is important for the family.
However, the lion can also choose to use a compromising or
accommodating style when playing or resting with a lion cub.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Obliging or accommodating style
A chameleon is a symbol of the accommodating style because it changes its
color to match the color of its environment. By changing its color to
accommodate its surroundings, the chameleon fits quietly into its environment.
Although the chameleon may always change its color to accommodate its surroundings, it may
choose other styles when it is hunting for food, taking care of its young, or hiding from enemies.
It represents a low level of concern for self and a high level of concern for other
Integrating or cooperative style
It represents a high level of concern for both self and other.
A dolphin usually chooses a cooperative problem-solving style. Dolphins use
whistles and clicks to communicate with each other to catch food
cooperatively and to summons help. For example, when a dolphin is
sick or injured, other dolphins will help it to the surface so it can
Although the dolphin usually chooses to be a cooperative problem solver, it can also choose other styles
depending on the situation. For example, if a dolphin has a baby and a shark is in the area, the dolphin will
choose to use a competitive style to deal with the shark. Continuing to use its favorite style of cooperation
would greatly endanger the life of the baby dolphin.
A zebra can be a symbol for the compromising style.
A zebra's unique look seems to indicate that it didn't care if it was a black horse or a white
horse, so it "split the difference" and chose black and white stripes.
However, a zebra may not choose a compromising style
for all things. A zebra may choose a cooperative
or competitive style like the dolphin or lion depending on the situation.
It represents a moderate level of concern for self and other
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication