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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Lesson 23
ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE
Quotation:
Anger can be an effective negotiating tool.
Mark McCormack (1930 - ) U.S. sports agent, promoter, and lawyer.
You must never try to make all the money that's in a deal. Let the other fellow make some money too,
because if you have a reputation for making all the money there is in a deal, you won't make many deals. J.
Paul Getty (1892 - 1976) U.S. oil magnate.
Quotation:
War is the trade of kings.
John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic.
We will discuss the following points in this lecture.
·  The best negotiation styles to use for preserving cooperation.
·  The best negotiation styles to use for self-protections.
·  The negotiation skills of the best negotiators.
·  Some ways of assessing your own preferred negotiation style and those of your clients, associates,
team, and other disputant team.
·  Tactics that can be used to develop win-win solutions to conflict.
Dual Concern Model
Dual Concern Model
High
Obliging
Integrating
Conc
Compromising
ern
for
other
Low
Avoiding
Dominating
Low
Concern for self
High
Masochism: Self-misery
Limitations of Dual Concern Model
Research in the field of negotiation is highly complex and situations vary significantly.
Dual concern model assumes that no disputant has negative orientation, which is not the case. Sometimes, a
disputant may be sadist and get pleasure by harming others.
Negotiation style is an overall strategy not just a tactic.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Dual Concern Model
Very
Obliging
Obliging
Integrating
positive
and
masochistic
Compromising
Conc
ern
Masochistic
Avoiding
Dominating
for
other
Dominating
Very
Sadistic and
and
negative
masochistic
Sadistic
masochistic
Very negative
Concern for self
Very positive
Masochistic: inviting abuse or misery
The Parable of the two sisters and the orange
The situation
Two sisters go to the Fridge at the same time for an orange. There is only one orange and a dispute arises
between them as who will take the orange.
Avoiding (Low concern for self and other)
The sisters do nothing, since they can't decide. Two weeks later, there are two dissatisfied sisters and the
orange got stale in the fridge.
The orange is wasted and there is a cost of disposing it off.
Dominating, or competing (High Concern for self and low concern for other)
The sisters agree to an arm-wrestling contest, with the winner taking the orange. Naila wins the orange and
Ayesha loses. Naila juices the orange and drinks it and Ayesha is unhappy.
The skin of the orange is wasted and there is a cost of disposing it off for the tax payers, which is better
than wasting the whole orange.
Obliging, or accommodating (Low Concern for self and high concern for other)
Naila says, "You take the orange, Ayesha". Naila replies, "No, no, dear, you take it. I want you to have it."
Naila rejoins, "I couldn't possibly, Ayesha Bahan. You take it." Unless one or both sisters can recover from
their case of terminal etiquette, the result will be same as for avoiding.
Another possible outcome is that one sister relents and takes the orange, an outcome similar to that for
dominating, except that animosity may be less.
Compromising (Moderate Concern for both self and other)
The sisters agree to divide the orange in half. Naila juices her half and has a tiny glass of juice. Ayesha grates
the skin from her half orange for a cake (except she doesn't have quite enough). The result is two half-
satisfied sisters and a half-wasted orange.
Taxpayers, have about the same bill for waste disposal that we had for the dominating/competing outcome.
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Conflict Management ­HRM624
VU
Integrating, Collaborating, or Problem-solving (High Concern for both self and other):
Naila asks Ayesha, "What do you need an orange for?" Ayesha replies, "I need the skin for my cake."
(Integrating always includes an investigation of the disputants' underlying needs.) Naila smiles and says,
"Then there is no problem. I just want a glass of juice." The result is two satisfied sisters and a fully utilized
orange.
The taxpayers have less waste to dispose of. (Now, if we could only find use for the seeds!)
Considerations involved in using five negotiation styles
While deciding which negotiation style would be the most suitable for a particular situation, there are certain
points which need to be considered, such as
1. Usefulness in inducing cooperation (motivate cooperation)
2. Self-protectiveness (high degree of motivation to protect one's own interests)
3. Integrating is good especially when there is power imbalance
4. Effective interests analysis is a must for using integrative style
5. Creative problem solving for meeting the underlying needs of all the disputants
6. Mutual and unilateral styles: Integrating and compromising require mutuality.
Integration style not possible in some situations
There are certain situations when integrating style can not be adopted e.g.
1. A relatively powerful disputant does not want to cooperate
2. A disputant is disempowered due to lack of information
3. When one disputant is forced to litigation
4. When there is constraint of time or limited mental energy
5. Integrating style is difficult for those who have limited cognitive capacities.
Tactics Used In Integrating
Expert integrators are familiar with five common tactics that support the integrating style of negotiation
(Rubin, Pruitt, & Kim 1994 173-79)
1. Expanding the pie: it involves making the resource pool larger
2. Cutting costs: it is the converse expanding the pie: it relies on cost reduction to increase the net revenues
available for distribution
3. Nonspecific compensation: It refers to giving the other disputant "unrelated" compensation for giving up
something of value
4. Logrolling: it is simply the exchange of items that have values personal to the disputants
5. Bridging: It is responding to underlying interests rather than to positions. In essence, every effective
integrating negotiation is a bridging process.
Integrating style is the best style but it has its own limitations. It assumes that all disputants are rational and
in actuality some disputants may be irrational and masochistic. These limitations of individual disputants can
influence the choice of negotiation style.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  8. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS II:Themes of Conflict Diagnosis
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  12. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT II
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication