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Digital Logic Design

AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS Next >>>
 
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Lesson No. 01
AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
Analogue versus Digital
Most of the quantities in nature that can be measured are continuous. Examples include
·  Intensity of light during the day: The intensity of light gradually increases as the sun
rises in the morning; it remains constant throughout the day and then gradually decreases
as the sun sets until it becomes completely dark. The change in the light throughout the
day is gradual and continuous. Even with a sudden change in weather when the sun is
obscured by a cloud the fall in the light intensity although very sharp however is still
continuous and is not abrupt.
·  Rise and fall in temperature during a 24-hour period: The temperature also rises and
falls with the passage of time during the day and in the night. The change in temperature is
never abrupt but gradual and continuous.
·  Velocity of a car travelling from A to B: The velocity of a car travelling from one city to
another varies in a continuous manner. Even if it abruptly accelerates or stops suddenly,
the change in velocity seemingly very sudden and abrupt is never abrupt in reality. This
can be confirmed by measuring the velocity in short time intervals of few milliseconds.
The measurable values generally change over a continuous range having a minimum and
maximum value. The temperature values in a summer month change between 23 0C to 45 0C.
A car can travel at any velocity between 0 to 120 mph.
Digital representing of quantities
Digital quantities unlike Analogue quantities are not continuous but represent quantities
measured at discrete intervals. Consider the continuous signal as shown in the figure 1.1.
To represent this signal digitally the signal is sampled at fixed and equal intervals. The
continuous signal is sampled at 15 fixed and equal intervals. Figure 1.2. The set of values (1,
2, 4, 7, 18, 34, 25, 23, 35, 37, 29, 42, 41, 25 and 22) measured at the sampling points
represent the continuous signal. The 15 samples do not exactly represent the original signal
but only approximate the original continuous signal. This can be confirmed by plotting the 15
sample points. Figure 1.3. The reconstructed signal from the 15 samples has sharp corners
and edges in contrast to the original signal that has smooth curves.
If the number of samples that are collected is reduced by half, the reconstructed signal will
be very different from the original. The reconstructed signal using 7 samples have missing
peak and dip at 34 0C and 23 0C respectively. Figure 1.4. The reason for the difference
between the original and the reconstructed signal is due to under-sampling. A more accurate
representation of the continuous signal is possible if the number of samples and sampling
intervals are increased. If the sampling is increased to infinity the number of values would still
be discrete but they would be very close and closely match the actual signal.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
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15
10
5
0
1
2
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time
Figure 1.1 Continuous signal showing temperature varying with time
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Figure 1.2 Sampling the Continuous Signal at 15 equal intervals
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
45
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samples
Figure 1.3 Reconstructed Signal by plotting 15 sampled values
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9
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samples
Figure 1.4 Reconstructed Signal by plotting 7 sampled values
Electronic Processing of Continuous and Digital Quantities
Electronic Processing of the continuous quantities or their Digital representation requires
that the continuous signals or the discrete values be converted and represented in terms of
voltages. There are basically two types of Electronic Processing Systems.
·  Analogue Electronic Systems: These systems accept and process continuous signals
represented in the form continuous voltage or current signals. The continuous quantities
are converted into continuous voltage or current signals by transducers. The block diagram
describes the processing by an Analogue Electronic System. Figure 1.5.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
·
Digital Electronic Systems: These systems accept and process discrete samples
representing the actual continuous signal. Analogue to Digital Converters are used to
sample the continuous voltage signals representing the original signal.
Do the Digital Electronic Systems use voltages to represent the discrete samples of the
continuous signal? This question can be answered by considering a very simple example of a
calculator which is a Digital Electronic System. Assume that a calculator is calibrated to
represents the number 1 by 1 millivolt (mV). Thus the number 39 is represented by the
calculator in terms of voltage as 39 mV. Calculators can also represent large numbers such as
6.25 x 1018 (as in 1 Coulomb = 6.25 x 1018 electrons). The value in terms of volts is 6.25 x 1015
volts! This voltage value can not be practically represented by any electronic circuit. Thus
Digital Systems do not use discrete samples represented as voltage values.
Figure 1.5
Analogue Electronic System processing continuous quantities
Digital Systems and Digital Values
Digital systems are designed to work with two voltage values. A +5 volts represents a logic
high state or logic 1 state and 0 volts represents a logic low state or logic 0 state. The Digital
Systems which are based on two voltage values or two states can easily represent any two
values. For example,
·  The numbers `0' and `1'
·  The state of a switch `on' or `off'
·  The colour `black' and `white'
·  The temperature `hot' and `cold'
·  An object `moving' or `stationary'
Representing two values or two states is not very practical, as many naturally occurring
phenomenons have values or state that are more than two. For example, numbers have
widely varying ranges, a colour palette might have 64 different shades of the colour red, the
temperature of boiling water at room temperature varies from 30 0C to 100 0C. Digital Systems
are based on the Binary Number system which allows more than two or multiple values to be
represented very conveniently.
Binary Number System
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
The Binary Number System unlike the Decimal number system is based on two values.
Each digit or bit in Binary Number system can represent only two values, a `0' and a `1'. A
single digit of the Decimal Number system represents 10 values, 0, 1, 2 to 9. The Binary
Number System can be used to represent more than two values by combining binary digits or
bits. In a Decimal Number System a single digit can represent 10 different values (0 to 9),
representing more than 10 values requires a combination of two digits which allows up to 100
values to be represented (0 to 99). A Combination of Binary Numbers is used to represent
different quantities.
·
Represent Colours: A palette of four colours red, blue, green and yellow can be
represented by a combination of two digital values 00, 01, 10 and 11 respectively.
Representing Temperature: An analogue value such as 39oC can be represented in a
·
digital format by a combination of 0s and 1s. Thus 39 is 100111 in digital form.
Any quantity such as the intensity of light, temperature, velocity, colour etc. can be
represented through digital values. The number of digits (0s and 1s) that represents a quantity
is proportional to the range of values that are to be represented. For example, to represent a
palette of eight colours a combination of three digits is used. Representing a temperature
range of 00 C to 1000 C requires a combination of up to seven digits.
Digital Systems uses the Binary Number System to represent two or multiple values,
stores and processes the binary values in terms of 5 volts and 0 volts. Thus the number 39
represented in binary as 100111 is stored electronically in as +5 v, 0v, 0v, +5 v, +5 v and +5 v.
Advantages of working in the Digital Domain
Handling information digitally offers several advantages. Some of the merits of a digital
system are spelled out. Details of some these aspects will be discussed and studied in the
Digital Logic Design course. Other aspects will be covered in several other courses.
·  Storing and processing data in the digital domain is more efficient: Computers are
very efficient in processing massive amounts of information and data. Computers process
information that is represented digitally in the form of Binary Numbers. A Digital CD stores
large number of video and audio clips. Sam number of audio and video clips if stored in
analogue form will require a number of video and audio cassettes.
·  Transmission of data in the digital form is more efficient and reliable: Modern
information transmission techniques are relying more on digital transmission due to its
reliability as it is less prone to errors. Even if errors occur during the transmission methods
exist which allow for quick detection and correction of errors.
·  Detecting and Correcting errors in digital data is easier: Coding Theory is an area
which deals with implementing digital codes that allow for detection and correction of multi-
bit errors. In the Digital Logic Design course a simple method to detect single bit errors
using the Parity bit will be considered.
·  Data can be easily and precisely reproduced: The picture quality and the sound quality
of digital videos are far more superior to those of analogue videos. The reason being that
the digital video stored as digital numbers can be exactly reproduced where as analogue
video is stored as a continuous signal can not be reproduced with exact precision.
·  Digital systems are easy to design and implement: Digital Systems are based on two-
state Binary Number System. Consequently the Digital Circuitry is based on the two-
voltage states, performing very simple operations. Complex Microprocessors are
implemented using simple digital circuits. Several simple Digital Systems will be discussed
in the Digital Logic course.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
·
Digital circuits occupy small space: Digital circuits are based on two logical states.
Electronic circuitry that implements the two states is very simple. Due to the simplicity of
the circuitry it can be easily implemented in a very small area. The PC motherboard having
an area of approximately 1 sq.ft has most of the circuitry of a powerful computer. A
memory chip small enough to be held in the palm of a hand is able to store an entire
collection of books.
Information Processing by a Digital System
A Digital system such as a computer not only handles numbers but all kinds of information.
·  Numbers: A computer is able to store and process all types of numbers, integers, fractions
etc. and is able to perform different kinds of arithmetic operations on the numbers.
·  Text: A computer in a news reporting room is used to write and edit news reports. A
Mathematician uses a computer to write mathematical equations explaining the dissipation
of heat by a heat sink. The computer is able to store and process text and symbols.
·  Drawings, Diagrams and Pictures: A computer can store very conveniently complex
engineering drawings and diagrams. It allows real life still pictures or videos to be
processed and edited.
·  Music and Sound: Musicians and Composers uses\ a computer to work on a new
compositions. Computers understand spoken commands.
A Digital System (computer) is capable of handling different types of information, which is
represented in the form of Binary Numbers. The different types of information use different
standards and binary formats. For example, computers use the Binary number system to
represent numbers. Characters used in writing text are represented through yet another
standard known as ASCII which allows alphabets, punctuation marks and numbers to be
represented through a combination of 0s and 1s.
Digital Components and their internal working
Digital system process binary information electronically through specialized circuits
designed for handling digital information. These circuits as mentioned earlier operate with two
voltage values of +5 volts and 0 volts. These specialized electronic circuits are known as Logic
Gates and are considered to be the Basic Building Blocks of any Digital circuit.
The commonly used Logic Gates are the AND gate, the OR gate and the Inverter or NOT
Gate. Other gates that are frequently used include NOR, NAND, XOR and XNOR. Each of
these gates is designed to perform a unique operation on the input information which is known
as a logical or Boolean operation.
Large and complex digital system such as a computer is built using combinations of these
basic Logic Gates. These basic building blocks are available in the form of Integrated Circuit or
ICs. These gates are implemented using standard CMOS and TTL technologies that
determine the operational characteristics of the gates such as the power dissipation,
operational voltages (3.3v or 5 v), frequency response etc.
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Figure 1.6 Symbolic representations of logic gates.
Combinational Logic Circuits and Functional Devices
The logic gates which form the basic building blocks of a digital system are designed to
perform simple logic operations. A single logic gate is not of much use unless it is connected
with other gates to collectively act upon the input data. Different gates are combined to build a
circuit that is capable of performing some useful operation like adding three numbers. Such
circuits are known as Combinational Logic Circuits or Combinational Circuits. An Adder
Combinational Circuit that is able to add two single bit binary numbers and give a single bit
Sum and Carry output is shown. Figure 1.7.
Implementing large digital system by connecting together logic gates is very tedious and
time consuming; the circuit implemented occupies large space, are power hungry, slow and
are difficult to troubleshoot.
A
P
B
Cin
Cout
G
Figure 1.7 1-bit Full-Adder Combinational Circuit
Digital circuits to perform specific functions are available as Integrated Circuits for use.
Implementing a Digital system in terms of these dedicated functional units makes the system
more economical and reliable. Thus an adder circuit does not have to be implemented by
connecting various gates, a standard Adder IC is available that can be readily used. Other
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
commonly used combinational functional devices are Comparators, Decoders, Encoders,
Multiplexers and Demultiplexers.
Sequential logic and implementation
Digital systems are used in vast variety of industrial applications and house hold electronic
gadgets. Many of these digital circuits generate an output that is not only dependent on the
current input but also some previously saved information which is used by the digital circuit.
Consider the example of a digital counter which is used by many digital applications where a
count value or the time of the day has to be displayed. The digital counter which counts
downwards from 10 to 0 is initialized to the value 10. When the counter receives an external
signal in the form of a pulse the counter decrements the count value to 9. On receiving
successive pulses the counter decrements the currently stored count value by one, until the
counter has been decremented to 0. On reaching the count value zero, the counter could
switch off a washing machine, a microwave oven or switch on an air-conditioning system.
The counter stores or remembers the previous count value. The new count value is
determined by the previously stored count value and the new input which it receives in the
form of a pulse (a binary 1). The diagram of the counter circuit is shown in the figure. Figure
1.8.
Digital circuits that generate a new output on the basis of some previously stored
information and the new input are known as Sequential circuits. Sequential circuits are a
combination of Combinational circuits and a memory element which is able to store some
previous information. Sequential circuits are a very important part of digital systems. Most
digital systems have sequential logic in addition to the combinational logic. An example of
sequential circuits is counters such as the down-counter which generates a new decremented
output value based on the previous stored value and an external input. The storage element or
the memory element which is an essential part of a sequential circuit is implemented a flip-flop
using a very simple digital circuit known as a flip-flop.
Figure 1.8
A Counter Sequential Circuit
Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs)
The modern trend in implementing specialized dedicated digital systems is through
configurable hardware; hardware which can be programmed by the end user. A digital
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
controller for a washing machine can be implemented by connecting together pieces of
combinational and sequential functional units. These implementations are reliable however
they occupy considerable space. The implementation time also increases. A general purpose
circuit that can be programmed to perform a certain task like controlling a washing machine
reduces the implementation cost and time.
Cost is incurred on implementing a digital controller for a washing machine which requires
that an inventory of all its components such as its logic circuits, functional devices and the
counter circuits be maintained. The implementation time is significantly high as all the circuit
components have to be placed on a circuit board and connected together. If there is a change
in the controller circuit the entire circuit board has to be redesigned. A PLD based washing
machine controller does not require a large inventory of components to be maintained. Most of
the functionality of the controller circuit is implemented within a single PLD integrated circuit
thereby considerably reducing the circuit size. Changes in the controller design can be readily
implemented by programming the PLD.
Programmable Logic Devices can be used to implement Combinational and Sequential
Digital Circuits.
Memory
Memory plays a very important role in Digital systems. A research article being edited by a
scientist on a computer is stored electronically in the digital memory whilst changes are being
made to the document. Once the document has be finalized and stored on some media for
subsequent printing the memory can be reused to work on some other document. Memory
also needs to store information permanently even when the electrical power is turned off.
Permanent memories usually contain essential information required for operating the digital
system. This important information is provided by the manufacturer of a digital system.
Memory is organized to allow large amounts of data storage and quick access. Memory
(ROM) which permanently stores data allows data to be read only. The Memory does not allow
writing of data. Volatile memory (RAM) does not store information permanently. If the power
supplied to the RAM circuitry is turned off, the contents of the RAM are permanently lost and
can not be recovered when power is restored. RAM allows reading and writing of data. Both
RAM and ROM are an essential part of a digital system.
Analogue to Digital and Digital to Analogue conversion and Interfacing
Real-world quantities as mention earlier are continuous in nature and have widely varying
ranges. Processing of real-world information can be efficiently and reliably done in the digital
domain. This requires real-world quantities to be read and converted into equivalent digital
values which can be processed by a digital system. In most cases the processed output needs
to be converted back into real-world quantities. Thus two conversions are required, one from
the real-world to the digital domain and then back from the digital domain to the real-world.
Modern digitally controlled industrial units extensively use Analogue to Digital (A/D) and
Digital to Analogue (D/A) converters to covert quantities represented as an analogue voltage
into an equivalent digital representation and vice versa. Consider the example of an industrial
controller that controls a chemical reaction vessel which is being heated to expedite the
chemical reaction. Figure 1.9. Temperature of the vessel is monitored to control the chemical
reaction. As the temperature of the vessel rises the heat has to be reduced by a proportional
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
level. An electronic temperature sensor (transducer) converts the temperature into an
equivalent voltage value. This voltage value is continuous and proportion to the temperature.
The voltage representing the temperature is converted into a digital representation which is fed
to a digital controller that generates a digital value corresponding to the desired amount of
heat. The digitized output representing the heat is converted back to a voltage value which is
continuous and is used to control a valve that regulates the heat. An A/D converter converts
the analogue voltage value representing the temperature into a corresponding digital value for
processing. A D/A converter converts back the digital heat value to its corresponding
continuous value for regulating the heater.
Digital
Controller
D/A
A/D
Converter
Converter
Transducer
Vessel
Heater
Figure 1.9
Digitally Controlled Industrial Heater Unit
A/D and D/A converters are an important aspect of digital systems. These devices serve
as a bridge between the real and digital world allow the two to communicate and interact
together.
Number Systems and Codes
Decimal Number System
The decimal number system has ten unique digits 0, 1, 2, 3... 9. Using these single digits,
ten different values can be represented. Values greater than ten can be represented by using
the same digits in different combinations. Thus ten is represented by the number 10, two
hundred seventy five is represented by 275 etc. Thus same set of numbers 0,1 2... 9 are
repeated in a specific order to represent larger numbers.
The decimal number system is a positional number system as the position of a digit
represents its true magnitude. For example, 2 is less than 7, however 2 in 275 represents 200,
whereas 7 represents 70. The left most digit has the highest weight and the right most digit
has the lowest weight. 275 can be written in the form of an expression in terms of the base
value of the number system and weights.
2 x 102 + 7 x 101 + 5 x 100 = 200 + 70 + 5 = 275
where, 10 represents the base or radix
102, 101, 100 represent the weights 100, 10 and 1 of the numbers 2, 7 and 5
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
Fractions in Decimal Number System
In a Decimal Number System the fraction part is separated from the Integer part by a
decimal point. The Integer part of a number is written on the left hand side of the decimal
point. The Fraction part is written on the right side of the decimal point. The digits of the
Integer part on the left hand side of the decimal point have weights 100, 101, 102 etc.
respectively starting from the digit to the immediate left of the decimal point and moving away
from the decimal point towards the most significant digit on the left hand side. Fractions in
decimal number system are also represented in terms of the base value of the number system
and weights. The weights of the fraction part are represented by 10-1, 10-2, 10-3 etc. The
weights decrease by a factor of 10 moving right of the decimal point. The number 382.91 in
terms of the base number and weights is represented as
3 x 102 + 8 x 101 + 2 x 100 + 9 x 10-1 + 1 x 10-2 = 300 + 80 + 2 + 0.9 + 0.01 = 382.91
Caveman number system
A number system discovered by archaeologists in a prehistoric cave indicates that the
caveman used a number system that has 5 distinct shapes , Ć, >, and . Furthermore it
has been determined that the symbols to represents the decimal equivalents 0 to 5
respectively.
Centuries ago a caveman returning after a successful hunting expedition records his
successful hunt on the cave wall by carving out the numbers Ć↑. What does the number Ć↑
represent? The table 1.1 indicates that the Caveman numbers Ć↑ represents decimal number
9.
Decimal Number
Caveman Number
Decimal Number
Caveman Number
0
10
>
1
Ć
11
>Ć
2
>
12
>>
3
13
>
4
14
>
5
Ć∑
15
Ω∑
6
ĆĆ
16
ΩĆ
7
Ć>
17
>
8
ĆΩ
18
ΩΩ
9
Ć↑
19
Ω↑
20
↑∑
Table 1.1
Decimal equivalents of the Caveman Numbers
The Caveman is using a Base-5 number system. A Base-5 number system has five
unique symbols representing numbers 0 to 4. To represent numbers larger than 4, a
combination of 2, 3, 4 or more combinations of Caveman numbers are used. Therefore, to
represent the decimal number 5, a two number combination of the Caveman number system is
used. The most significant digit is Ć which is equivalent to decimal 1. The least significant digit
is which is equivalent to decimal 0. The five combinations of Caveman numbers having the
most significant digit Ć, represent decimal values 5 to 9 respectively. This is similar to the
Decimal Number system, where a 2-digit combination of numbers is used to represent values
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CS302 - Digital Logic & Design
greater than 9. The most significant digit is set to 1 and the least significant digit varies from 0
to 9 to represent the next 10 values after the largest single decimal number digit 9.
The Caveman number Ć↑ can be written in expression form based on the Base value 5
and weights 50, 51, 52 etc.
= Ć x 51 + x 50 = Ć x 5 + x 1
Replacing the Caveman numbers Ć and with equivalent decimal values in the expression
yields
= Ć x 51 + x 50 = 1 x 5 + 4 x 1 = 9
The number ĆΩ↑∑ in decimal is represented in expression form as
Ć x 53 + x 52 + x 51 + x 50 = Ć x 125 + x 25 + x 5 + x 1
Replacing the Caveman numbers with equivalent decimal values in the expression yields
= (1) x 125 + (3) x 25 + (4) x 5 + (0) x 1 = 125 + 75 + 20 + 0 = 220
Binary Number System
The Caveman Number system is a hypothetical number system introduced to explain
that number system other than the Decimal Number system can exist and can be used to
represent and count numbers. Digital systems use a Binary number system. Binary as the
name indicates is a Base-2 number system having only two numbers 0 and 1. The Binary digit
0 or 1 is known as a `Bit'. Table 1.2
Decimal Number
Binary Number
Decimal Number
Binary Number
0
0
10
1010
1
1
11
1011
2
10
12
1100
3
11
13
1101
4
100
14
1110
5
101
15
1111
6
110
16
10000
7
111
17
10001
8
1000
18
10010
9
1001
19
10011
20
10100
Table 1.2
Decimal equivalents of Binary Number System
Counting in Binary Number system is similar to counting in Decimal or Caveman
Number systems. In a decimal Number system a value larger than 9 has to be represented by
2, 3, 4 or more digits. In the Caveman Number System a value larger than 4 has to be
represented by 2, 3, 4 or more digits of the Caveman Number System. Similarly, in the Binary
Number System a Binary number larger than 1 has to be represented by 2, 3, 4 or more binary
digits.
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Any binary number comprising of Binary 0 and 1 can be easily represented in terms of
its decimal equivalent by writing the Binary Number in the form of an expression using the
Base value 2 and weights 20, 21, 22 etc.
The number 100112 (the subscript 2 indicates that the number is a binary number and
not a decimal number ten thousand and eleven) can be rewritten in terms of the expression
100112 = (1 x 24) + (0 x 23) + (0 x 22) + (1 x 21) + (1 x 20)
= (1 x 16) + (0 x 8) + (0 x 4) + (1 x 2) + (1 x 1)
= 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1
= 19
Fractions in Binary Number System
In a Decimal number system the Integer part and the Fraction part of a number are
separated by a decimal point. In a Binary Number System the Integer part and the Fraction
part of a Binary Number can be similarly represented separated by a decimal point. The Binary
number 1011.1012 has an Integer part represented by 1011 and a fraction part 101 separated
by a decimal point. The subscript 2 indicates that the number is a binary number and not a
decimal number. The Binary number 1011.1012 can be written in terms of an expression using
the Base value 2 and weights 23, 22, 21, 20, 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3.
1011.1012 = (1 x 23) + (0 x 22) + (1 x 21) + (1 x 20) + (1 x 2-1) + (0 x 2-2) + (1 x 2-3)
= (1 x 8) + (0 x 4) + (1 x 2) + (1 x 1) + (1 x 1/2) + (0 x 1/4) + (1 x 1/8)
= 8 + 0 + 2 + 1 + 0.5 + 0 + 0.125
= 11.625
Computers do handle numbers such as 11.625 that have an integer part and a fraction
part. However, it does not use the binary representation 1011.101. Such numbers are
represented and used in Floating-Point Numbers notation which will be discussed latter.
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Table of Contents:
  1. AN OVERVIEW & NUMBER SYSTEMS
  2. Binary to Decimal to Binary conversion, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s & 2’s complement
  3. Range of Numbers and Overflow, Floating-Point, Hexadecimal Numbers
  4. Octal Numbers, Octal to Binary Decimal to Octal Conversion
  5. LOGIC GATES: AND Gate, OR Gate, NOT Gate, NAND Gate
  6. AND OR NAND XOR XNOR Gate Implementation and Applications
  7. DC Supply Voltage, TTL Logic Levels, Noise Margin, Power Dissipation
  8. Boolean Addition, Multiplication, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Distributive Law, Demorgan’s Theorems
  9. Simplification of Boolean Expression, Standard POS form, Minterms and Maxterms
  10. KARNAUGH MAP, Mapping a non-standard SOP Expression
  11. Converting between POS and SOP using the K-map
  12. COMPARATOR: Quine-McCluskey Simplification Method
  13. ODD-PRIME NUMBER DETECTOR, Combinational Circuit Implementation
  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ODD-PARITY GENERATOR CIRCUIT
  15. BCD ADDER: 2-digit BCD Adder, A 4-bit Adder Subtracter Unit
  16. 16-BIT ALU, MSI 4-bit Comparator, Decoders
  17. BCD to 7-Segment Decoder, Decimal-to-BCD Encoder
  18. 2-INPUT 4-BIT MULTIPLEXER, 8, 16-Input Multiplexer, Logic Function Generator
  19. Applications of Demultiplexer, PROM, PLA, PAL, GAL
  20. OLMC Combinational Mode, Tri-State Buffers, The GAL16V8, Introduction to ABEL
  21. OLMC for GAL16V8, Tri-state Buffer and OLMC output pin
  22. Implementation of Quad MUX, Latches and Flip-Flops
  23. APPLICATION OF S-R LATCH, Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-flop
  24. Data Storage using D-flip-flop, Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop
  25. Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops
  26. THE 555 TIMER: Race Conditions, Asynchronous, Ripple Counters
  27. Down Counter with truncated sequence, 4-bit Synchronous Decade Counter
  28. Mod-n Synchronous Counter, Cascading Counters, Up-Down Counter
  29. Integrated Circuit Up Down Decade Counter Design and Applications
  30. DIGITAL CLOCK: Clocked Synchronous State Machines
  31. NEXT-STATE TABLE: Flip-flop Transition Table, Karnaugh Maps
  32. D FLIP-FLOP BASED IMPLEMENTATION
  33. Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps
  34. SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial In/Shift Left,Right/Serial Out Operation
  35. APPLICATIONS OF SHIFT REGISTERS: Serial-to-Parallel Converter
  36. Elevator Control System: Elevator State Diagram, State Table, Input and Output Signals, Input Latches
  37. Traffic Signal Control System: Switching of Traffic Lights, Inputs and Outputs, State Machine
  38. Traffic Signal Control System: EQUATION DEFINITION
  39. Memory Organization, Capacity, Density, Signals and Basic Operations, Read, Write, Address, data Signals
  40. Memory Read, Write Cycle, Synchronous Burst SRAM, Dynamic RAM
  41. Burst, Distributed Refresh, Types of DRAMs, ROM Read-Only Memory, Mask ROM
  42. First In-First Out (FIFO) Memory
  43. LAST IN-FIRST OUT (LIFO) MEMORY
  44. THE LOGIC BLOCK: Analogue to Digital Conversion, Logic Element, Look-Up Table
  45. SUCCESSIVE –APPROXIMATION ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER