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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 27
ADULT EDUCATION
Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. This is often done in the workplace or
through 'extension' or 'continuing education courses at secondary schools, or at a college or university. Other
learning places include folk high schools, community colleges, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is also
often referred to as 'Training and Development'. It has also been referred to as andragogy (to distinguish it from
pedagogy). A difference is made between vocational education, mostly done in workplaces and mostly related to
upskilling, and non-formal adult education, that can include learning skills or learning for personal
development.
Educating adults differs from educating children in several ways. One of the most important differences is that
adults have accumulated knowledge and experience that can either add value to a learning experience or hinder
it.
Another important difference is that adults frequently must apply their knowledge in some practical fashion to
learn effectively; there must be a goal and a reasonable expectation that the new knowledge will help them
further that goal. One example, common in the 1990s, was the proliferation of computer training courses in
which adults (not children or adolescents), most of whom were office workers, could enroll. These courses
would teach basic use of the operating system or specific application software. Because the abstractions
governing the user's interactions with a PC were so new, many people who had been working white-collar jobs
for 10 years or more eventually took such training courses, either at their own whim (to gain computer skills
and thus earn higher pay) or at the behest of their managers.
In the United States, a more general example is that of the high-school dropout who returns to school to
complete general education requirements. Most upwardly-mobile positions require at the very least a high
school diploma or equivalent. A working adult is unlikely to have the freedom to simply quit their job and go
"back to school" full time. Public school systems and community colleges usually offer evening or weekend
classes for this reason. In Europe this is often referred to as "second-chance", and many schools offer tailor-
made courses and learning programmes for these returning learners.
Those adults who read at the very lowest level get help from volunteer literacy programs. These programs
provide one to one tutoring and small group sessions for adults at the 6th grade level or below. Public libraries,
nonprofit organizations and school systems administer these programs across the country. ProLiteracy
Worldwide is the national organization which provides training, tutor certification and accreditation for local
volunteer programs. States often have state organizations such as Literacy Florida!Inc. which provide field
services for volunteer literacy programs.
In the U.S.A., the equivalent of the high school diploma earned by an adult through these programs is to pass
the General Education Development (GED) test.
Another fast-growing sector of adult education is English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), also
referred to as English as a Second Language (ESL)or English Language Learners (ELL). These courses are key
in assisting immigrants with not only the acquisition of the English language, but the acclimation process to the
culture of the United States.
An adult high school or adult school is a high school facility designed for adult education. It is intended for
adults who have not completed high school to continue their education. Some adult high schools offer child
care, special integration programs for immigrants and refugees, career counseling and other programs and
services geared toward the special needs of adult students. Some adult high schools may also offer general
interest programs such as computer skills or other continuing education courses.
A few cities in the United States and Canada have dedicated adult high school facilities. In most other cities,
students age out of the system at 19 or 20 leaving them no other option than getting their GED. This is a
problem for students who still need many classes to gain the skills they need to pass a GED test. This problem
is compounded for the United State's growing foreign born population, who are not familiar with the American
school systems and are still learning English, especially if they come into the United States in their teens and are
expected to catch up with their American peers by the time they reach the age of 19 or 20.
Lifelong learning is the concept that "It's never too soon or too late for learning", a philosophy that has taken
root in a whole host of different organisations. Lifelong learning is attitudinal; that one can and should be open
to new ideas, decisions, skills or behaviors. Lifelong learning throws the axiom "You can't teach an old dog new
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
tricks" out the door. Lifelong learning sees citizens provided with learning opportunities at all ages and in
numerous contexts: at work, at home and through leisure activities, not just through formal channels such as
school and higher education. Lifelong learning is the final outcome of Information Literacy.
Lifelong education is a form of pedagogy often accomplished through distance learning or e-learning,
continuing education, homeschooling or correspondence courses. It also includes postgraduate programs for
those who want to improve their qualification, bring their skills up to date or retrain for a new line of work.
Internal corporate training has similar goals, with the concept of lifelong learning used by organisations to
promote a more dynamic employee base, better able to react in an agile manner to a rapidly changing climate.
In later life, especially in retirement, continued learning takes diverse forms, crossing traditional academic
bounds and including recreational activities.
One of the reasons why lifelong education has become so important is the acceleration of scientific and
technological progress. Despite the increased duration of primary, secondary and university education (14-18
years depending on the country), the knowledge and skills acquired there are usually not sufficient for a
professional career spanning three or four decades. The European Union adopted a Communication in
October 2006 entitled "It's never too late to learn". This document suggests lifelong learning to be the core of
the ambitious Lisbon 2010-process, in which the whole of the European Union should become a learning area.
In India and elsewhere, the "University of the Third Age" (U3A) provides an example of the almost
spontaneous emergence of autonomous learning groups accessing the expertise of their own members in the
pursuit of knowledge and shared experience. No prior qualifications and no subsequent certificates feature in
this approach to learning for its own sake and, as participants testify, engagement in this type of learning in
later life can indeed 'prolong active life'. For those who can't physically attend these autonomous learning
groups, a virtual U3A, U3A Online, is open to isolated older people from any country. In Sweden the concept
of "study circles", an idea launched almost a century ago, still represents a large portion of the adult education
provision. The concept has since spread, and is a common practice in for instance Finland as well. A study
circle is one of the most democratic forms of learning environment created. There are no teachers, the group
decides themselves the content and scope as well as the method to use.
Sometimes lifelong learning aims to provide educational opportunities outside standard educational systems --
which can be cost-prohibitive, if available at all. On the other hand, formal administrative units devoted to this
discipline exist in a number of universities. For example, the 'Academy of Lifelong Learning' is an
administrative unit within the University-wide 'Professional and Continuing Studies' unit at the University of
Delaware Another example is the Jagiellonian University Extension (Wszechnica Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego),
which is one of the most comprehensive Polish centers for lifelong learning (open learning, organizational
learning, community learning).
In recent years 'Lifelong Learning' has been adopted in the UK as an umbrella term for post-compulsory
education that falls outside of the UK Higher Education system - Further Education, Community Education,
Work-based Learning and similar voluntary, public sector and commercial settings. See Lifelong Learning UK.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs