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Introduction to Psychology

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Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Lesson 37
Causes of Phobias may include:
·  Result of some traumatic event or disaster
·  Hereditary component,
·  Prevalent equally in men and women,
·  Anxiety,
·  Panic attacks.
Fear of:
Entering public places
Closed spaces
Speaking out loud
Treatment of Phobias includes
· Use of behavior therapy especially behavioral- modification therapy.
· Procedure of systematic desensitization is used.
· Biofeedback is also helpful.
Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder
Obsession is an unwanted, recurrent and persistent thought that continuously recurs, and that can be
intrusive and inappropriate
A compulsion is the uncontrollable urge to perform an apparently strange and unreasonable act repeatedly.
Symptoms include
·  Distress,
·  Frustration,
·  Anxiety etc
Causes include:
·  Risk factor,
·  Stereotype behaviors,
·  Brain abnormalities,
·  Unpleasant thoughts,
·  Some incident etc.
Prognosis: It is a chronic illness in which total removal of symptoms is not possible, but improvement
through medication and therapy is possible
Somatoform Disorders
A disorder in which psychological problems take the physical (somatic) form without any apparent physical
cause; a state where there are physical symptoms present but no explicable medical cause.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Symptoms include
·  Blurred vision,
·  Dizziness,
·  Vomiting,
·  Difficulty in swallowing etc
There are two types of somatoform disorders.
1) Hypochondriasis
2) Conversion disorders
Type of somatoform disorder in which the person experiences a persistent fear of illness, and is
preoccupied by health concerns.
Even minor pains and aches may be interpreted as a symptom of some serious disease.
Symptoms involve
·  In this disorder doctor shopping is very frequent.
·  Sympathy may exaggerate these complaints.
·  Patient undergoes surgery and regularly takes medication.
·  Patient focuses closely on normal physiological states such as rapid heartbeat, sweating,
palpitations etc; patient interprets it as some severe disease.
·  Minor health problems may become severe as a result of persistent stress and discomfort
Conversion Disorders
Disorder in which the persons undergoes an actual, genuine and specific, physical problem and disturbance.
The problem has a purely psychological reason and there is no biological cause involved.
The problem manifests itself suddenly, without any prior indication.
Unexplainable neurological symptoms appear at once when no testable cause is present.
Symptoms include
·  Partial blindness.
·  Loss of voluntary control over motor and sensory functions.
·  Inability to hear and talk.
·  Sudden display of emotions: and at times there is no emotion.
·  Symptoms may be exaggerated by stress.
The sufferers frequently do not show a natural concern about the symptoms.
Causes include
·  Hereditary component, and observational learning
·  A state of severe stress
·  People who have other organic problems may develop conversion disorder
·  A prior knowledge of the disease and symptoms is there.
Dissociative Disorder
A disorder in which critical personality facets, that is normally integrated and working together, become
This allows stress avoidance and anxiety reduction by way of escape.
The person uses defense mechanisms for avoiding stress and to deal with traumatic experiences
At a time, two or more personalities, may exist within the person
Symptoms include
1. Auditory or visual illusion,
2. Feeling of confusion and disorientation,
3. Severe anxiety attacks,
4. Suicidal attempts,
5. Inflicting self-injuries
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Causes involves
·High state of stress
Treatment includes
·Self- induced trance
·Minimize stress
Types of Dissociative Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia
A state when a selective loss of memory occurs.
The person is unable to recall specific events often as a result of extreme stress.
Significant memory loss occurs about personal information that is not due to an organic cause.
This disorder vanishes abruptly as it begins and rarely re-occurs.
Dissociative Fugue:
Fugue means, " flight"
Fugue is a form of amnesia.
The sufferer takes sudden impulsive trips, at times assuming a new identity.
Dissociative fugue includes forgetting as well as fleeing from one's home for days and weeks, also being
unable to remember one's identity.
Unconscious wandering in which the person has limited social contacts.
In some instances, person may take over another personality that is more sociable than the previous one.
Dissociative identity disorder/Multiple personality
·  Rare disorder in which the person may take over two or more personalities that are entirely
different from one another
·  The first one is usually restrained, restricted and dull but the other one is entirely different from the
previous one; one's mannerisms, vocal, movements are entirely different from one another
Mood Disorders
Psychological and affective disturbances characterized by emotional extremes that are enough to produce
troubles in daily living
The emotional response is disturbed and so strong that it disturbs everyday living.
Mood disorders mainly include:
1. Major depression
2. Mania
3. Bipolar disorder
i. Major Depression
Previously known as " melancholia"
Major depression is a severe form of depression.
Common form of mood disorders
A disorder characterized by lack of concentration, decision- making, sociability, withdrawal from others,
and a feeling of worthlessness and inadequacy.
Depression is labeled as depressive disorder when it persists for long and hampers daily life.
Symptoms include
1. Concentration problems,
2. Irritability and restlessness,
3. Persistent sadness, anxious and empty mood
4. Fatigue,
5. Appetite changes
6. Feeling of agitation
7. Sleep disturbances
8. Hopelessness and pessimism
9. Loss of interest in activities, which are pleasurable
10. Suicidal thoughts.
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Causes include
4.Hereditary cause,
6.Chemical imbalances in the brain; the sufferer however has the belief that it is a medical illness
rather than a psychological one
7.Most commonly occurs in people with low self- esteem
8.Women are twice as likely to develop major depression as men.
9.Learning experiences may contribute to the development of depression
10.Serious loss in business or some other disaster,
11.Relationship problems, financial setbacks etc
Treatment includes
Use of medication,
Behavioral therapy.
ii. Mania
Mania is the opposite state of depression.
It is an extended state of intense wild elation.
iii. Bipolar Disorder:
Bipolar disorder is a combination of depression and mania.
The sufferer alternates between periods of extreme euphoria and elation i.e., mania, and bouts of
Side Effects of Mood Disorders
The height of elation may lead to high creative output, although it does not ensure high quality of
the creative output.
The manics are often reckless and end up with self-injury.
Psychodynamic explanation: Feeling of loss that can be real or potential.
Hereditary factor: These disorders appear to be running in families.
The role of neurotransmitters: Serotonin and nor epinephrine have been found to be related to these
Alterations in the level of these chemicals have a role to play in mood disorders
Behavioral explanation: Lack of, or reduction in, positive reinforcement leads to mood disorders.
Cognitive explanation: the sufferers of depression believe that they are life's losers; they are failures,
inadequate, and not meant to be the `winners' in life. They have a pessimistic view of life.
Evolutionary psychology explanation: Considering the impact of the genetic factors, it states that depression
is an adaptive response to unattainable goals.
Schizophrenia is a category of mental disorders marked by severe distortion of reality.
There is a deep division between the real world and the schizophrenic's world.
What makes schizophrenia different from other disorders?
Significant decline from a previous level of functioning.
Disturbances of thought and language
Symptoms in Schizophrenia
Emotional disturbances,
Introduction to Psychology ­PSY101
Unshakable, firm, and deeply believed in beliefs are held by the schizophrenic.
Delusions can be about one's being grand, or being persecuted by others, or others planning against him, or
one's thoughts being relayed to others who are out of physical reach.
Hallucinations and Perceptual Disorders
The schizophrenic has sensory experiences that ordinary people do not have.
They may hear voices, see people or objects, and/or smell things that others find to be non-existent.
The hallucinations mean reality to the schizophrenic.
Hallucinations are usually based on the delusions.
The sense of own body is also affected in schizophrenia.
Emotional Disturbances
Overall the schizophrenics show a flat, blank, and bland emotional response.
Also, their emotional responses are inappropriate.
Schizophrenics live in an isolated world of their own.
Schizophrenics withdraw from others.
They avoid socializing.
They are not interested in others.
In extreme cases they are oblivious of the presence of others.
Types of Schizophrenia
a. Disorganized or hebephrenic type
Marked by inappropriate emotion: inappropriate giggling, laughter, silliness, incoherent speech, infantile
behavior, and strange and at times obscene behavior.
b. Paranoid Schizophrenia
The patient experiences delusions and hallucinations of his own greatness.
Behavior is unpredictable, and erratic.
Sense of judgment is lost.
c. Catatonic Schizophrenia
Catatonic schizophrenia is marked by disturbances in the motor activity and muscular control.
Major disturbances occur in movement.
At times all motion stops and the patient just freezes in one position.
This frozen posture may last for hours and even days.
In some phases the patient exhibits wild, free floating, and even violent movement.
d. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
This variety of schizophrenia involves a combination of the major symptoms found in other varieties.
This diagnosis is used when patients do not fit into any one of the major categories of schizophrenia.
e. Residual Schizophrenia
Residual schizophrenia consists of minor signs of schizophrenia after a major, more serious,
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?:Theoretical perspectives of psychology
  3. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:Biological Approach, Psychodynamic Approach
  4. PERSPECTIVE/MODEL/APPROACH:Narcosis, Chemotherapy
  5. THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH/ MODEL:Psychic Determinism, Preconscious
  6. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH:Behaviorist Analysis, Basic Terminology, Basic Terminology
  8. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (I):Scientific Nature of Psychology
  9. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY (II):Experimental Research
  11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:Socio- Cultural Factor, The Individual and the Group
  12. NERVOUS SYSTEM (1):Biological Bases of Behavior, Terminal Buttons
  13. NERVOUS SYSTEM (2):Membranes of the Brain, Association Areas, Spinal Cord
  14. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Dwarfism
  15. SENSATION:The Human Eye, Cornea, Sclera, Pupil, Iris, Lens
  16. HEARING (AUDITION) AND BALANCE:The Outer Ear, Auditory Canal
  17. PERCEPTION I:Max Wertheimer, Figure and Ground, Law of Closure
  18. PERCEPTION II:Depth Perception, Relative Height, Linear Perspective
  19. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:Electroencephalogram, Hypnosis
  20. LEARNING:Motor Learning, Problem Solving, Basic Terminology, Conditioning
  21. OPERANT CONDITIONING:Negative Rein forcer, Punishment, No reinforcement
  22. COGNITIVE APPROACH:Approach to Learning, Observational Learning
  23. MEMORY I:Functions of Memory, Encoding and Recoding, Retrieval
  24. MEMORY II:Long-Term Memory, Declarative Memory, Procedural Memory
  25. MEMORY III:Memory Disorders/Dysfunctions, Amnesia, Dementia
  26. SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES:Curiosity, Need for affiliation
  27. EMOTIONS I:Defining Emotions, Behavioral component, Cognitive component
  28. EMOTIONS II:Respiratory Changes, Pupillometrics, Glandular Responses
  29. COGNITION AND THINKING:Cognitive Psychology, Mental Images, Concepts
  31. PERSONALITY I:Definition of Personality, Theories of Personality
  32. PERSONALITY II:Surface traits, Source Traits, For learning theorists, Albert Bandura
  33. PERSONALITY III:Assessment of Personality, Interview, Behavioral Assessment
  34. INTELLIGENCE:The History of Measurement of Intelligence, Later Revisions
  35. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY:Plato, Aristotle, Asclepiades, In The Middle Ages
  36. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR I:Medical Perspective, Psychodynamic Perspective
  37. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR II:Hypochondriasis, Conversion Disorders, Causes include
  38. PSYCHOTHERAPY I:Psychotherapeutic Orientations, Clinical Psychologists
  39. PSYCHOTHERAPY II:Behavior Modification, Shaping, Humanistic Therapies
  40. POPULAR AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY:ABC MODEL, Factors affecting attitude change
  41. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY:Understanding Health, Observational Learning
  42. INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:‘Hard’ Criteria and ‘Soft’ Criteria
  43. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY:Focus of Interest, Consumer Psychologist
  44. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Some Research Findings, Arousal level
  45. FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY:Origin and History of Forensic Psychology