ZeePedia
Introduction to Mass Communication

TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA:Newspapers, Magazines, Books

<< TELEGRAPH DOES MIRACLE IN DISTANCE COMMUNICATION TELEX AND TELEPHONE ENTHRALL PRINT COMMUNICATION
PRESS FREEDOM, LAWS AND ETHICS NEW DEBATE RAGING STILL HARD >>
img
Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
VU
LESSON 16
TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA
With a sort of boon coming in the world of print communication with the availability of printing
press, telegraph, telephone and telex, the publishing industry made hey while the sun was shinning.
The first hundred years was the time when the print industry tried to comprehend the new situation and
shaped itself into a regular and formal sector but from the start of the 19th century, print media in most
countries started specializing in certain areas. Since business in the form of advertisements in the print was
also flourishing, the media enjoyed a great deal of financial comfort and provided jobs to tens of thousands
of people across the globe.
The publishing industry, a synonym with print media, could be classified in general terms into three distinct
categories:
 Newspapers
 Magazines
 Books
In the following paragraphs we will see these three areas with more details.
Newspapers
It took about 150 years from the invention of printing press in the middle of 15th century that the
world witnessed first regular publication which could be defined as a newspaper.
Although there have been claims by many to be decorated as first newspaper like Mixed News in China in
710, Notizie Scritte, a monthly newspaper for which readers pay a "gazetta", or small coin by Venetian
government in 1556 etc, the World Association of Newspapers held "Relation", as the first newspaper
published in France in 1605. By this reckoning the newspapers' history is 400 years old. The Relation
followed a list of news papers from all around the world. Here is a brief account of some popular papers:
1621 ---- In London, the newspaper Courante is published.
1631 ---- The Gazette, the first French newspaper, is founded.
1639 ---- First American colonial printing press.
1645 ---- World's oldest newspaper still in circulation, Post-och Inrikes Tidningar, is published in Sweden
1690 ---- Publick Occurrences is the first newspaper published in America when it appears in Boston. The
editor, Benjamin Harris, stated he would issue the paper "once a month, or, if any Glut of Occurrences
happen, oftener." The royal authority, wary of publications printed without its express consent, suppresses
the newspaper after only one issue.
1704 ---- Daniel Defoe, the author of Robinson Crusoe and often recognized as the world's first journalist,
begins to publish the Review, a periodical covering European affairs.
1798 ---- Alois Sedenfelder Invents Lithography. Although invented over two centuries ago, off set
lithography first gained popularity in the 1960's, and is now the industry standard.
1803 ---- Australia's military government publishes the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, the
country's first newspaper. This is only fifteen years after the colony of convicts had been established in
Sydney Cove.
1812 ---- Friedrich Koenig invents the Steam Powered Cylinder Press. In 1814, John Walter, publisher of
The Times in London, began to assemble the new press in secrecy, fearing that his pressmen might riot if
they discovered his plans. On the night of November 28, 1814, Walter took his pressmen away from their
hand presses with the excuse that he was expecting important news from the continent. He then used
Koenig's presses to produce the entire print run of The Times -- at an output of 1,100 sheets per hour.
1844 ---- Telegraph is invented.
1851 ---- Reuters ­ news agency, is established.
1900 ----Vladimir Lenin founds Iskra, in Leipzig, Germany. This revolutionary newspaper is to become a
major tool for Communist propaganda.
44
img
Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
VU
1903 ---- Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord North cliffe) develops the first tabloid newspaper, the Daily Mirror,
in London. The Daily Mirror introduced the concept of the "exclusive" interview. The first was with Lord
Minto, the new Viceroy of India, in 1905.
As the newspapers came to age, they assumed different shapes and assigned themselves different jobs.
Contents
General-interest newspapers are usually journals of current news. Those can include :
Political events
Crime
Business
Culture
Sports
Opinions (either editorials, columns, or political cartoons)
Newspapers use photographs to illustrate stories; they use editorial cartoonists, usually to illustrate writing
that is opinion, rather than news.
Some specific features a newspaper may include are:
weather news and forecasts
an advice column
critical reviews of movies, plays, restaurants, etc.
editorial opinions
a gossip column
comic strips and other entertainment, such as crosswords and horoscopes
a sports column or section
a humor column or section
a food column
Types of newspapers
Besides the contents, the newspapers also specialize in their type.
International newspapers
Weekly newspapers
Sunday newspapers
National newspaper
Local newspaper
Circulation
A big issue with newspapers is always the size of their circulation. This also determines the revenue
it can generate, and number of people it can employ with it. The mass circulation also gives a newspaper a
weigh in a number of local and national matters and its editorial staff enjoys a unique freedom in more than
one ways.
Some top ranking newspapers circulation-wise are as follow:
Rank
Title
Country
Circulation (000)
1.
Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan
14,067
2.
The Asahi Shimbun
Japan
12,121
3.
Mainichi Shimbun
Japan
5,587
4.
Nihon Keizai Shimbun
Japan
4,635
5.
Chunichi Shimbun
Japan
4,512
6.
Bild
Germany
3,867
7.
Sankei Shimbun
Japan
2,757
45
img
Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
VU
8.
Canako Xiaoxi (Beijing)
China
2,627
9.
People's Daily
China
2,509
10.
Tokyo Sports
Japan
2,425
Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by
advertising, purchased by readers, or both.
Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the
cover that is later than the date it is actually published. They are often printed in colour on coated paper,
and are bound with a soft cover.
Types of magazines
Art magazines
Business magazines
Music magazines
Computer magazines
Children's magazines
Health and fitness magazines
History magazines
Humor magazines
Inspirational magazines
Men's magazines
Women's magazines
Luxury magazines
News magazines
Online magazines
Pulp magazines
Pornographic magazines
Regional magazines
Satirical magazines
Teen magazines
Consumer magazines
Consumer magazines are aimed at the public and are usually available through retail outlets. They
range from general-interest titles such as Time, Esquire and Cosmopolitan, which appeal to a broad spectrum of
readers, to highly specialist titles covering particular hobbies, leisure pursuits or other interests.
Business magazines
Many business magazines are available only, or predominantly, on subscription. In some cases these
subscriptions are available to any person prepared to pay; in others, free subscriptions are available to
readers who meet a set of criteria established by the publisher. This practice, known as controlled circulation, is
intended to guarantee to advertisers that the readership is relevant to their needs.
All magazines have some elements in common, even if they are a listings magazine or a simple advertising
vehicle. The main features of content in magazines mainly consist of the cover page features, reviews,
problem pages, interviews, advertisements, competitions and some form of gossip. Other common
elements are; advice columns, campaigns, do it yourself features, in our next issues, makeovers, letters' page,
opinion columns, and contents pages.
The main features of presentation of magazines are the cover pages, the layout and the design photographs
and illustrations use of colour, an insight of the actual magazine and visual narrative. The better the visual
narrative of the magazine, the more it will appeal to its specific audience.
46
img
Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
VU
Books
Though books existed before print technology, they were limited in number and their readership
was also confined to few.
A book is a collection of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound
together along one edge, usually within covers. Each side of a sheet is called a page and a single sheet within
a book may be called a leaf. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work
Books became part of the mass media after the printing process was invented. Now they are in the reach of
almost everyone and could cover any distance on the planet. Their topics are varied and their value could be
judged from the fact that most libraries in the world are due to books rather than other published material.
When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, nearly everything that could be written upon--
stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets--was used for writing. Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt around 1800
BC.
Scroll
Egyptian papyrus showing the god Osiris and the weighing of the
heart
In Ancient Egypt, papyrus (a form of paper made by weaving the stems of
the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer like tool)
was used for writing maybe as early as from First Dynasty, but first
evidence is from the account books of King Neferirkare Kakai of the Fifth
Dynasty (about 2400 BC).
Middle Ages
Manuscripts
Before the invention and adoption of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand,
which made books expensive and comparatively rare. Smaller monasteries had usually only some dozen
books, medium sized a couple hundred. By the ninth century larger
collections held around 500 volumes.
Wood block printing
A 15th century incunabulum
Notice the blind-tooled cover, cornerbosses and clasps for holding the book
shut.
Innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. This
invention made books comparatively affordable (although still quite expensive
for most people) and more widely available. It is estimated that in Europe
about 1,000 various books were created per year before the development of the printing press.
Paper
Though papermaking in Europe had begun around the 11th century, up until the beginning of 16th
century vellum and paper were produced congruent to one another, vellum being the more expensive and
durable option. Printers or publishers would often issue the same publication on both materials, to cater to
more than one market. As was the case with many medieval inventions, paper was first made in China, as
early as 200 B.C., and reached Europe through Muslim territories. At first made of rags, the industrial
revolution changed paper-making practices, allowing for paper to be made
out of wood pulp.
Modern world
A collection of Penguin Books
With the rise of printing in the fifteenth century, books were
published in limited numbers and were quite valuable. The need to protect
47
img
Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
VU
these precious commodities was evident. One of the earliest references to the use of bookmarks was in
1584 when the Queen's Printer, Christopher Barker, presented Queen Elizabeth I with a fringed silk
bookmark. Common bookmarks in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were narrow silk ribbons bound
into the book at the top of the spine and extended below the lower edge of the page. The first detachable
bookmarks began appearing in the 1850's and were made from silk, embroidered fabrics or leather. Not
until the 1880's, did paper and other materials become more common.
Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 1800s. These machines could print 1,100
sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2,000 letters per hour. Monotype and linotype presses were
introduced in the late 19th century. They could set more than 6,000 letters per hour and an entire line of
type at once.
The centuries after the 15th century were thus spent on improving both the printing press and the
conditions for freedom of the press through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws. In mid-
20th century, Europe book production had risen to over 200,000 titles per year.
Collections of books
In the Middle Ages, monasteries and universities had also
libraries that could be accessible to general public. Typically not the
whole collection was available to public; the books could not be
borrowed and often were chained to reading stands to prevent theft.
Celsus Library was built in 135 A.D. and could house around 12,000
scrolls.
The beginning of modern public library begins around 15th century.
The advent of paperback books in the 20th century led to an explosion of popular publishing. Paperback
books made owning books affordable for many people.
48
Table of Contents:
  1. MASS COMMUNICATION AN OVERVIEW:Relationships, Power
  2. EARLY MASS COMMUNICATION AND PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
  3. SEVEN CENTURIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION FROM PRINTING TO COMPUTER
  4. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION AND EARLY COMMUNICATION MODELS
  5. COMMUNICATION MODELS GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF COMPLEX ISSUES
  6. TYPES AND FORMS OF COMMUNICATION:Inter personal, Combination
  7. MESSAGE ROOT OF COMMUNICATION I:VERBAL MESSAGE, Static Evaluation
  8. MESSAGE ROOT OF COMMUNICATION II:Conflicts, Brevity of Message
  9. EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION:Helping Out Others, Relaxation
  10. COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE:Enculturation, Acculturation
  11. LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION:Polarization, Labeling, Static meanings
  12. STEREOTYPING A TYPICAL HURDLE IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Stereotype Groups
  13. MASS MEDIA HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:Early analysis on manuscripts
  14. EMERGENCE OF PRINT MEDIA AROUND THE WORLD:Colonial journalism
  15. TELEGRAPH DOES MIRACLE IN DISTANCE COMMUNICATION TELEX AND TELEPHONE ENTHRALL PRINT COMMUNICATION
  16. TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA:Newspapers, Magazines, Books
  17. PRESS FREEDOM, LAWS AND ETHICS NEW DEBATE RAGING STILL HARD
  18. INDUSTRIALIZATION OF PRINT PROCESSES:Lithography, Offset printing
  19. EFFECTS OF PRINT MEDIA ON SOCIETY:Economic ideas, Politics
  20. ADVERTISING HAND IN HAND WITH MEDIA:Historical background
  21. RENAISSANCE AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: ROLE OF PRINT MEDIA:Science
  22. RECAP:Elements of communication, Books, Printing, Verbal Message
  23. MEDIA MANAGEMENT:Division, Business section, Press
  24. IMAGES IN MASS COMMUNICATION INVENTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY:Portrait photography
  25. MOTION PICTURES A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION-I:Definition
  26. MOTION PICTURES A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION (Cont...):Post-Studio Era
  27. FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN-I:Accusations of plagiarism
  28. FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN (II) & ITS EFFECTS:First Color film
  29. PROPAGANDA:Types in another manner, Propaganda in revolutions
  30. RADIO A BREAKTHROUGH IN MASS COMMUNICATION:What to broadcast
  31. EFFECTS OF RADIO ON SOCIETY:Entertainment, Information, Jobs
  32. TELEVISION A NEW DIMENSION IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Early Discoveries
  33. TV IN PAKISTAN:Enthusiasm, Live Broadcast, PTV goes colored
  34. EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON SOCIETY:Seeing is believing, Fashion
  35. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - I:History, Case Study
  36. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - II:Audience targeting
  37. ADVERTISING BEYOND PRINT MEDIA:Covert advertising
  38. IMPACT OF ADVERTISING:Trial, Continuity, Brand Switching, Market Share
  39. MEDIA THEORIES:Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory
  40. NEW MEDIA IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Technology forcing changes
  41. GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA:Media and consumerism, Media centralization
  42. MEDIA MERGENCE:Radio, TV mergence, Economic reasons
  43. MASS MEDIA IN PRESENT AGE:Magazine, Radio, TV
  44. CRITICISM ON MEDIA:Sensationalize, Biasness, Private life, obscenity
  45. RECAP:Legends of South Asian Film Industry, Radio, Television, PTV goes colored