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THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire

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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
LESSON 15
THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY
It should be pointed out that the various methods of assessing personality correspond closely to the basic
personality theories we have just discussed. For example, Projective tests such as the Rorschach test are closely
linked to the psychoanalytic theory of personality. Conversely, the various paper-and pencil inventories are
linked to traits theory.
The methods outlined here are not perfect; nor do psychologists agree on the meaning of the results of any
particular test.
There are three basic classes of measurement techniques. They are:
Rating scales
Unstructured projective tests
Questionnaires
Rating Scales
Characteristically, rating scales involve the use of a judge or judges who are asked to observe an individual in
some situation. The judge employs the use of a checklist or scale that has been predesigned for maximum
objectivity. Usually, if the checklist is used properly and the judges are well trained, the results can be fairly
reliable and objective.
Typically, two types of situations are involved in personality assessment using rating scales. And these are,
The interview
1.
The observation of performance
2.
In the interview, the judge asks the subject numerous open-ended and specific questions designed to ascertain
personality traits and general impressions. Generally, several interviews are necessary to gain impressions about
underlying motives (the core of personality). If the interview is conducted properly, carefully, and systematically,
the results can be reliable and valid. However, much depends upon the skill and sensitivity of the person
conducting the interview.
On the other hand the observation of a subject during some type of performance situation is the second kind of
rating system used for ascertaining personality. As with the interview, observations can be effective if the
checklist being used is well designed and planned, and if the observer is highly trained.
Projective Procedures
Projective procedures may also be used to identify traits, but they are commonly used to determine information
about underlying motives. Projective techniques allow subjects to reveal their inner feelings and motives
through unstructured tasks. Theses techniques are used primarily in clinical psychology and are somewhat
synonymous with the psychoanalytic and humanistic approaches to explaining personality. The underlying
assumption is that if subjects perceive that there are no right or wrong responses, they will likely be open and
honest in their responses.
Several kinds of tests have been developed; amongst them are Rorschach test, the Thematic Apperception
Test, the Sentence Completion Test, and the House-Tree-Person Test.
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
The Rorschach Test
Herman Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist, was the first to apply the inkblot to the study of personality.
The Rorschach test was introduced in 1921, and remains the most famous of all the projective testing
devices. The test material consists of ten cards. Each card has inkblot on it, which is symmetrical and
intricate. Some of the cards are entirely in black and white, while others have a splash of color or are
nearly all in color. The cards are presented to the subject one at a time and in a prescribed order. As the
cards are presented, the subject is encouraged to tell what he sees.
Though the Rorschach test has not been used extensively by sport psychologists to evaluate personality
in athletes but there is no doubt that the responses the clients give to the Rorschach test contain a
wealth of personal information. The question is whether the psychologist can accurately interpret the
response. Research (Weiner, 1994) suggests that when the Rorschach is used as an objectively scored
test, as recommended by Exner (1986), it is a reliable and psychometrically sound test.
The Thematic Apperception Test
The Thematic Apperception Test, developed by Henry Murray and his associates in 1943 at the
Harvard University Psychological Clinic, has been used almost as extensively as the Rorschach test. The
TAT is composed of nineteen cards containing pictures depicting vague situations, and one black card.
The subject is encouraged to make up a story about each picture. In contrast to the vague blots in the
Rorschach test, pictures in the TAT are rather clear and vivid. For example, the sex of the characters in
the picture and their facial expressions are generally identifiable. It is believed that subjects reveal or
project important aspects of their personalities as they weave the characters and objects in the picture
into either an oral or a written story.
Like the first test that is the Rorschach test the TAT has not been used extensively by the sport
psychologists to measure athlete's personality. But its validity and reliability are highly dependent upon
the skills and training of the individual administrating and interpreting the results.
Structured Questionnaire
The structured questionnaire is a paper-and--pencil test in which the subject answers specific true-
false statements. There are many different kinds of questionnaire type personality inventories. For our
purposes we will focus our discussion on the two most commonly used personality inventories.
One of these inventories was developed to be used with individuals suffering from personality
disorders, while the other was developed for normal populations.
1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used of all personality
inventories. It basically consists of a series of true/false questions designed to measure personality traits
and clinical conditions of the athletes.
The original version of the MMPI, composed of 550 items, was developed in the 1940s and is still in
use (Hathaway & McKinley, 1940). A revised version of the inventory, composed of 567 items, was
developed in 1990 and named the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Williams, & Ben-Sporath, 1990). These
authors also developed a new form of the inventory to be used with adolescents (MMPI-A). The traits
measured by the MMPI-2 include the following hypochondria, depression, hysteria, psychopathic
deviation, masculinity-feminity, paranoia, obsessive-compulsive behavior, schizophrenia,
hypomania, and social intraversion. The inventory also includes items to detect lying and faking
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
good/bad scores. While the MMPI-2 was designed specifically for use with clinical populations, it may be used
with normal individuals (Hathaway & McKinley, 1967)
2.
Cattell's Sixteen Factor Personality Inventory
Developed by Robert Cattell (1965), the Sixteen Factor Personality Inventory (Cattell 16 PF) is based upon
thirty-five personality traits originally identified by Cattell. Through a statistical process known as factor
analysis, Cattell reduced the thirty-five specific traits to sixteen broader traits or factors.
The current edition of the 16PF is titled the 16PF Fifth Edition (Russell & Karol, 1994), and is composed of
185 items. The 16PF takes from thirty-five to fifty minutes to complete and is designed for adults, or those aged
sixteen years and over. The 16PF measures 16 primary personality factors; it also included a social desirability
index to assess faking good or bad.
16Pf Primary Traits
1.
Warmth
2.
Reasoning
3.
Emotional Stability
4.
Dominance
5.
Liveliness
6.
Rule-Consciousness
7.
Social Boldness
8.
Sensitivity
9.
Vigilance
10.
Abstractedness
11.
Privateness
12.
Apprehension
13.
Openness to Change
14.
Self-Reliance
15.
Perfectionism
16.
Tension
Cattell believed that the sixteen traits measured by the 16PF could be further condensed down to five secondary
or global personality traits which are,
1.
Extraversion
2.
Anxiety
3.
Tough-Mindedness
4.
Independence
5.
Self-Control
Plotted standardized scores produce what sport psychologists call a personality profile. A standardized score is
a score that has been converted from a raw score so that it indicates whether an individual is high or low in a
characteristic relative to other individuals of the same gender, age, and academic background.
When the sport psychologist uses the 16 PF, materials and instructions are provided that show her how to
convert raw personality scores into standardized scores and then plot them in a personality profile. In this way
each athlete's personality profile can be produced.
In terms of reliability and validity, the Cattell 16PH is a good test to be used for measuring the personality of
athletes. Its copyrighted inventory, so it can only be used with the permission of the Institute for Personality
and Ability Testing (IPAT).
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References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York:
McGraw-Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants