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SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist

SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion >>
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Lesson 01
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED
Sport psychology is a science in which the principles of psychology are applied in a sport and exercise setting.
These principles are often applied to enhance performance, however, a true sport psychologist is interested in
much more than performance enrichment and sees sport as a tool for human enrichment. The sport
psychologists are interested in helping every sport participant reach his or her potential as an athlete. Sport
psychology is an exciting subject dedicated to the enhancement of both athletic performance and the social-
psychological aspects of human enrichment. In simple terms sport psychology is the study of the effect of
psychological and emotional factors on sport performance, and the effect of sport involvement on
psychological and emotional factors. These psychological and emotional factors can be fine-tuned and learned
which can have a positive effect on athlete's performance in sport and his overall psychological and emotional
makeup.
History of Sport Psychology
Sport psychology as a distinct field of study is extremely young and is evolving. The first clear historical example
of research being conducted in the area of sport psychology was in 1897.Drawing upon field observations and
secondary data, researchers found out that presence of other competitors could facilitate better cycling
performance. The first sport psychology laboratory was established by Coleman Roberts Griffith at the
University of Illinois in 1925. Following World War II such notable as Franklin M. Henry at the University of
California, John Lawther at Pennsylvania State University, and Arthur Slater-Hammel at Indiana University
pioneered graduate-level courses and developed research laboratories of their own.
1950 to 1980 are considered as the "formative years" for sport psychology. During this time, a number of
research initiatives and textbooks were published. Some of the early textbooks included Psychology of Coaching, by
John D. Lawther 1951, and Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them, by Bruce Ogilvie and Tom Tutko (1966).
Some initiatives in research were Warren Johnson's work with hypnosis and athletic performance (1960s), the
development and testing of anxiety inventories by Rainer Martens in (1970s and 1980s) and Albert Carron's and
P.Chelladurai's work with sport leadership and team cohesion (1970s and 1980s).
Development of Professional Organizations
A number of professional organizations have evolved since the 1960s. In 1965 the International Society
of Sport Psychology (ISSP) is to promote and disseminate information about the practice of sport
psychology throughout the world. In North America a small group sport psychologists from Canada
and the United States started work on forming their own professional organization for sport
psychology. The efforts of this small group came to fruition in 1966 when it was recognized by the
ISSP. The name of this new organization was the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport
and Physical Activity. NASPSPA. Since then NASPSPA has evolved into an influential academic
society focusing on sport psychology in the broadest sense. NASPSPA provided a forum for researches
in the areas of sport psychology, sport sociology motor learning, motor control, and motor
development to meet and exchange ideas and research. Shortly after the emergence of NASPSPA in the
United States, another significant professional organization came into existence in Canada in 1969. This
organization was named the Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology
(CSPLSP). In order to better address the interests and needs of sport psychologists interested in
applying the principle of psychology to sport and exercise, the Association for the Advancement of
Applied Sport Psychology (AAASP) was formed in the fall of 1985. AAASP has emerged in the 1990s
as the dominant association for the advancement of applied sport psychology as well as research in
North America, and perhaps in the world. In addition to these specialized organizations, other
associations created interest areas dedicated to sport psychology within their organizations. These
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
include American Psychological Association (APA), which created its division 47 in 1968 dedicated to
sport psychology.
Issue of Certification
Historically, sport psychology emerged as a discipline from physical education. The question arises that
`which people are qualified to call themselves psychologists and to provide services to athletes?'
AAAPA took the issue one step ahead and adopted a certification document outlining the process an
individual must take to be given the title of "Certified Consultant, Association for the Advancement of
Applied Sport Psychology". As one of the certification criteria, the applicant is required to hold an
earned doctorate in an area related to sport psychology (e.g., psychology, sport science, or physical
education). To be certified by AAASP both licensed and unlicensed psychologists need to meet the
minimum standards as set by the organization.
What Does The Sport Psychologist Do?
Roles and functions of a sport psychologist are described in the categories of clinician, educator and
researcher.
The clinical/ Counseling Sport Psychologist
The clinical/ counseling sport psychologist is a person trained in clinical or counseling psychology and
may be a licensed psychologist. Generally clinical/ counseling sport psychologists are individuals who
are trained specifically to deal with emotional and personality disorder problems that affect athletes.
The Educational Sport Psychologist
Most sport psychologist who received their academic training through departments of physical
education considers themselves to be educational sport psychologists. They use the medium of
education to teach correct principle of sport and exercise to athletes and coaches. Their main purpose is
to help athletes develop psychological skills for performance enhancement. They also help athlete,
young and old, to enjoy sport and use it as a vehicle for improving their quality of life.
The Research Sport Psychologist
For sport and exercise psychology to be a recognized and respected science, the knowledge must
continue to grow. It is the scientist and the scholar who serve this important role. For the practicing
sport psychologist to enjoy professional credibility there must exist a credible scientific body of
knowledge.
Accreditation Issue in Sport Psychology
The issue of who is qualified to deliver sport psychology services has been addressed to some degree by
AAASP with its certification program, the issue still remains as to who is qualified to prepare or train
sport psychologists. Accreditation is the only way to ensure quality and consistency of academic
training. Students graduating from accredited programs would be prepared to be certified AAASP
consultants.
Multicultural Training Issue in Sport Psychology
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Another issue that must be addressed is the issue of multicultural training. Graduates of sport
psychology programs should be adequately trained in issues that relate to culture and race. Multicultural
counseling is defined as counseling that takes place among individuals from different cultures/ racial
backgrounds.
Multicultural training of sport psychology students should be provided in four domains. First, Students should
experience a heightened awareness of and sensitivity to cultural groups different from their own. Second they
should gain knowledge about people who belong to cultures different than their own. Third, students should
learn helping and intervention skills through the process of role playing and stimulated interaction. Finally, each
prospective graduate should experience a supervised practicum to gain hands-on experience working with
members of a different culture or race.
References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York: McGraw-
Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants