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History and Systems of Psychology

SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 29
SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud was and Austrian psychiatrist who was born in 1856 and died in 1939. He worked at Vienna
and later in England. He is the inventor of psycho-analysis as a method of treatment. Born in Moravia, he
lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.
Freud was a doctor, writer, researcher and a professor. When Freud graduated from the medical school and
started doing research that was the time when hypnotism was a prevalent method of treatment of mental
disorders. He was impressed with works of Charcot, using hypnotism. Working with Joseph Breuer he saw
the advantages and disadvantages of hypnotism as a method of treatment.
His medical career began with an apprenticeship under J. M. Charcot in Paris, and soon after his return to
Vienna he began his famous collaboration with Josef Breuer on the use of hypnosis in the treatment of
hysteria.
Based upon his practice, he formulated the concept of unconscious mind and its role in creating mental
diseases. Freud discovered the unconscious functions of mind which according to him were responsible for
mental diseases.
Freud also thought that the parts of the mind play a dominant role in creating mental diseases. He gave the
parts of mind as follows:
Id
The Id is the irrational and emotional part of the mind. At birth a baby's mind is all Id ­ want, want, want.
The Id is the primitive mind. It contains all the basic needs and feelings. And it has only one rule--the
"pleasure principle": "I want it and I want it all now".
Ego
The Ego functions with the rational part of the mind. The Ego develops out of growing awareness that you
can't always get what you want. The Ego relates to the real world and operates via the "reality principle".
The Ego realizes the need for compromise and negotiates between the Id and the Superego. The Ego's job
is to get the Id's pleasures but to be reasonable and bear the long-term consequences in mind. The Ego
denies both instant gratification and pious delaying of gratification.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
The Superego
The Superego is the last part of the mind to develop. It might be called the moral part of the mind. The
Superego becomes an embodiment of parental and societal values. It stores and enforces rules. It constantly
strives for perfection, even though this perfection/ideal may be quite far from reality or possibility. Its
power to enforce rules comes from its ability to create anxiety.
The Superego has two subsystems: Ego Ideal and Conscience. The Ego Ideal provides rules for good
behavior, and standards of excellence towards which the Ego must strive. The Ego ideal is basically what
the child's parents approve of or value. The Conscience is the rules about what constitutes bad behavior.
The Conscience is basically all those things that the child feels his or her parents will disapprove or punish.
According to Freud, all human beings develop psychologically and during this process they pass through
different stages of psycho-sexual development. He said that the unconsciousness expresses itself in mental
symptoms, dreams and psychopathology of everyday life. He developed the theory of psycho-pathology of
everyday life. Slips of tongue, slips of memory etc. are representative of psychopathology of everyday life.
He developed the theory of interpretation of dreams. He explained dream work in terms of: Manifest
Contents; Latent Content, Displacement, Condensation, Symbolism etc.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology