ZeePedia
History and Systems of Psychology

SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud

<< SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung >>
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 30
SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT
Sigmund Freud formulated a theory of defense mechanisms. Some of them include denial, repression,
regression and projection. The id, the ego, and the superego formulate the model that Freud used to
describe the components of human personality. The ego, tempered by the superego, is that conscious part
that acts as mediator between the instinctual drives of the unconscious id and the social environment.
According to Freud, the ego has developed what he calls defense mechanisms, to cover for the wild
demands of the id, which would rarely be socially acceptable. All of the defenses can be described as a
combination of denial or repression with different ways of rationalization.
When we rationalize, we are distorting the facts to make the event or our own impulses less threatening;
that is, diluting the anxiety to a manageable level. We often come to believe our own distortions, or excuses,
or even lies.
Repression
The unconscious purpose of repression operates in a person who is not able to recall a threatening situation
or may completely forget that a disliked person ever was a part of his/her life. Phobias can be examples of
repression because the person has an unreasonable fear but may have no idea how it originated.
Denial
Denial is characterized by having a conscious awareness at some level, but simply denies the reality of the
experience by pretending it is not there. An example: a person who faints at a horrible real-life occurrence,
such as the death of a loved one. Or, that same person might intellectually know that a person has died but
refuses to "accept it" while she may still wait for the usual time the person came back from work.
On a lighter note, a student may refuse to pick up her final grade from a difficult class because she knows it
is not an acceptable grade. She simply denies the reality of the grade. As a defense mechanism, denial
becomes more difficult to maintain as one matures. Its use requires much energy and the mind looks at
other possibilities of defense.
Regression
Regression involves a movement back in developmental time to when a person felt safe and secure. Often,
that is childhood. For example, person who has suffered a difficult divorce or death of a spouse may want
to revisit the home of his/her childhood ­ those tender years before pain overruled all other feelings.
Projection
Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to someone else. The impulses are still judged
unacceptable but they belong to someone else, not you. At that point you are free to criticize that person
for having such terrible impulses. The final result is that you no longer feel threatened and you can maintain
your self-esteem by ignoring an objectionable aspect of yourself.
These were some examples of defenses that a person develops. Based upon his observations, Freud also
developed a theory of neurosis. According to his theory:
Neurosis=Predisposition + trauma
Which means that Neurosis is the result of a predisposition which is inclination or a tilt toward something,
and trauma which is a sudden shock resulting from, for example, an unexpected incident.
Based upon his experience he formulated his method of treatment of mental disorders which is called
psychoanalysis. The procedure of psychoanalysis includes:
Free association
o
68
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Interpretation of dreams
o
Interpretation of psychopathology of everyday life
o
Analysis of resistance
o
Analysis of transference
o
Freud also wrote extensively on ancient religions, social psychology and other topics.
Anna Freud
Anna Freud was born on December 3, 1895 and she died on October 9, 1982. She was the sixth and last
child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. Born in Vienna, she followed the path of her father and contributed to
the newly born field of psychoanalysis.
Her field of specialization was Child Psychology. As such, the formation of the fields of child
psychoanalysis and child developmental psychology can be attributed to Anna Freud. Her main
contribution in this field was the Identification with aggressor among the children who dominates the rest
of the children.
Anna Freud furthermore developed different techniques of assessment and treatment of children disorders,
thereby contributing to our understanding of anxiety and depression as significant problems among
children.
Heinz Hartmann
Heinz Hartmann was born in 1894 at Vienna, Austria and he died in 1970. He was a psychiatrist and
psychoanalyst. He is considered one of the founders and principal representatives of ego psychology.
Hartmann was born to a family known for producing writers and academics. His own father was a
professor of history, and his mother was a pianist and sculptor. Hartmann's interest was in Freudian
theories.
He chose to enter into analysis with Freud and was noted as a shining star amongst analysts of his
generation. His work marked the development of the theoretical movement known as Ego-psychology. He
elaborated the functions of ego. He stated that Ego integrates and coordinates tendencies in humans.
Ernst Kris
Being a follower of Freud, Ernst Kriss further elaborated the role of ego. According to him Ego controls
regression.
69
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology