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TV News Reporting and Production

SELECTION OF THE NEWS:Elements of news, Timeliness, proximity

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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
LESSON 16
SELECTION OF THE NEWS
What is News?
News is some thing or matter new, fresh, unusual, unique, strange and exclusive.
It may be defined as accurate fact or idea that will interest a large number of viewers. In a news
strangeness, abnormality, unexpectedness and nearness of and event, all add to interest in the news
story.
The American College Dictionary defines news as "A report of any recent event or situation and as the
report of event published in a newspaper"
According to Lord Northcliffe' "if a dog bites a man it is no news but if a man bites a dog it's news."
News is in fact a communication between human beings from the earliest period of human civilization.
News is information about an event, some development plan, and movement of important persons as it
is said, "big names make big news."
Qualities of news
Accurate
Balanced
Truthful
Recent
Exact
Perfect
Objective
Impartial
Unbiased
Disinclined
Concise
Short
Brief
To the point
Clear
Elements of news
Timeliness/Immediacy
Proximity
Consequence
Prominence
Suspense
Mystery
Oddity
Conflict
Progress
Action
Interest
Human Emotions
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
News and Documentary Production
Twelve Factors in Newsworthiness
Those involved in broadcast news must understand 12 factors that constitute news value, or
newsworthiness.
Timeliness
proximity
exceptional quality
possible future impact
prominence
conflict
the number of people involved or affected
consequence
human interest
pathos
shock value
titillation component
1. Timeliness: News is what's new. An afternoon raid on a rock cocaine house may warrant a live ENG
report during the 6 p.m. news. However, tomorrow, unless there are major new developments, the same
story will probably not be important enough to mention.
2. Proximity: If 15 people are killed in your hometown, your local TV station will undoubtedly
consider it news. But if 15 people are killed in Manzanillo, Montserrat, Moyobambaor, or some other
distant place you've never heard of, it will probably pass without notice. But there are exceptions.
3. Exceptional quality: One exception centers on how the people died. If the people in Manzanillo
were killed because of a bus or car accident, this would not be nearly as newsworthy as if they died
from an earthquake or stings from "killer bees," feared insects that have now invaded the United States.
Exceptional quality refers to how uncommon an event is. A man getting a job as a music conductor is
not news--unless that man is blind.
4. Possible future impact: The killer bee example illustrates another news element: possible future
impact. The fact that the killer bees are now in the United States and may eventually be a threat to
people watching the news makes the story much more newsworthy.
A mundane burglary of an office in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC, was hardly news until two
reporters named Woodward and Bernstein saw the implications and the possible future impact.
Eventually, the story behind this seemingly common burglary brought down a U.S. President.
5. Prominence: The 15 deaths in Manzanillo might also go by unnoticed by the local media unless
someone prominent was on the bus--possibly a movie star or a well-known politician. If a U.S.
Supreme Court Justice gets married, it's news; if John Smith, your next-door neighbor, gets married, it
probably isn't.
6. Conflict: Conflict in its many forms has long held the interest of observers. The conflict may be
physical or emotional. It can be open, overt conflict, such as a civil uprising against police authority, or
it may be ideological conflict between political candidates.
The conflict could be as simple as a person standing on his principles and spending a year fighting city
hall over a parking citation. In addition to "people against people" conflict, there can be conflict with
wild animals, nature, the environment, or even the frontier of space.
7. The number of people involved or affected: The more people involved in a news event, be it a
demonstration or a tragic accident, the more newsworthy the story is. Likewise, the number of people
affected by the event, whether it's a new health threat or a new tax ruling, the more newsworthy the
story is.
8. Consequence: The fact that a car hit a utility pole isn't news, unless, as a consequence, power is lost
throughout a city for several hours. The fact that a computer virus found its way into a computer system
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
might not be news until it bankrupts a business, shuts down a telephone system, or endangers lives by
destroying crucial medical data at a hospital.
9. Human interest: Human-interest stories are generally soft news. Examples would be a baby beauty
contest, a person whose pet happens to be a nine-foot boa constrictor, or a man who makes a cart so that
his two-legged dog can move around again.
On a slow news day even a story of fire fighters getting a cat out of a tree might make a suitable story.
(Or, as shown here, a kid meeting a kid.) Human-interest angles can be found in most hard news stories.
A flood will undoubtedly have many human-interest angles: a lost child reunited with its parents after
two days, a boy who lost his dog, or families returning to their mud-filled homes.
10. Pathos: The fact that people like to hear about the misfortunes of others can't be denied. Seeing or
hearing about such things commonly elicits feelings of pity, sorrow, sympathy, and compassion. Some
call these stories "tear jerkers."
Examples are the child who is now all alone after his parents were killed in a car accident, the elderly
woman who just lost her life savings to a con artist, or the blind man whose seeing-eye dog was
poisoned.
This category isn't just limited to people. How about horses that were found neglected and starving, or
the dog that sits at the curb expectantly waiting for its master to return from work each day, even though
the man was killed in an accident weeks ago.
11. Shock value: An explosion in a factory has less shock value if it was caused by gas leak than if it
was caused by a terrorist. The story of a six year-old boy who shot his mother with a revolver found in a
bedside drawer has more shock (and therefore news) value than if same woman died of a heart attack.
Both shock value and the titillation factor (below) are well known to the tabloid press. The lure of these
two factors is also related to some stories getting inordinate attention, such as the sordid details of a
politician's or evangelist's affair--which brings us to the final point.
12. Titillation component: This factor primarily involves gender and is commonly featured--some
would say exploited--during rating periods.
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Table of Contents:
  1. CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION FOR TELEVISION:Video Procedures
  2. PRE-REQUISITES OF A CREATIVE PRODUCER/DIRECTOR:SET-UP RESPONSIBILITIES
  3. REFINING AN IDEA FOR PRODUCTION:Drama, Magazine Shows, Documentary
  4. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:Variable. Pure and applied research
  5. RESEARCH AND REVIEWS:Research Procedure, Review of available literature
  6. SCRIPT WRITING:Elements of a successful story, Characters, Effects
  7. PRE-PRODUCTION PHASE:Indoor production, Outdoor production, Essentials of PBE
  8. SELECTION OF REQUIRED CONTENT AND TALENT:Camera rehearsal
  9. PROGRAMME PLANNING:Checklist, Electronic Field Production (EFP)
  10. PRODUCTION PHASE:Floor plan, Traditional set, Representational set, Design elements
  11. CAMERA WORK:Movement of lens of camera, Types of shots
  12. LIGHT AND AUDIO:Importance of sound in TV, Use of microphone, Loudness
  13. DAY OF RECORDING/PRODUCTION:Rehearsals,Point to ponder
  14. LINEAR EDITING AND NLE:Episode, Scene, Editing, Production Switcher
  15. MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS:Live Sound Effects, ARROW STRIKING
  16. SELECTION OF THE NEWS:Elements of news, Timeliness, proximity
  17. WRITING OF THE NEWS:The inverted pyramid, Lead, Credit line
  18. EDITING OF THE NEWS:Characteristics of good news:Process of editing a news
  19. COMPILATION OF NEWS BULLETIN:Hard news, Soft news, Investigative report
  20. PRESENTATION OF NEWS BULLETIN
  21. MAKING SPECIAL BULLETINS:Agriculture, Show biz, Fashion, Drama
  22. TECHNICAL CODES, TERMINOLOGY, AND PRODUCTION GRAMMAR
  23. TYPES OF TV PRODUCTION:Magazine Shows, Specific audience programming
  24. DRAMA AND DOCUMENTARY:Documentary film, Defining documentary
  25. SOURCES OF TV NEWS:Reporters, Correspondents, Monitoring, News Agency
  26. FUNCTIONS OF A REPORTER
  27. BEATS OF REPORTING:City reporter, Social reporters, Show-biz reporter
  28. STRUCTURE OF NEWS DEPARTMENT:Beat Reporters, Online media
  29. ELECTRONIC FIELD PRODUCTION:Sports, Electronic news gathering
  30. LIVE TRANSMISSIONS:Studio floor, Switcher, Master control room, Camera control units
  31. QUALITIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER:Determination, Awareness, Sharp an active
  32. DUTIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER
  33. ASSIGNMENT/NEWS EDITOR:Accuracy, Fairness and Reliability, Conflict
  34. SHOOTING A NEWS FILM:The Influence of telecast News
  35. PREPARATION OF SPECIAL REPORTS:Uncovering Truth, Reportage
  36. INTERVIEWS, VOX POPS AND PUBLIC OPINIONS:INTERVIEW, Information
  37. BACK GROUND VOICE AND VOICE OVER:Natural or Raw Sound, Sound Effects
  38. SPOKEN WORDS AND RELEVANT VISUALS:Digital Audio, Quantizing Error
  39. TALK SHOWS, FORUMS AND DISCUSSION PROGRAMMES
  40. FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF A TV SET UP
  41. PROGRAMMES DEPARTMENT:Program content, Television series by genre
  42. NEWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS THE PROGRAMMING & SCHEDULING
  43. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION
  44. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION - 2 SUB-DEPARTMENTS AND SMALL SECTIONS
  45. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3