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History and Systems of Psychology

SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS

<< HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke >>
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 27
SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
Man viewed and explained mental illness and diseases differently in various phases of past history. Starting
from the ancient epoch, up to the present, mental disorders have been attributed to different things such as
soul, mind, etc. As man's thinking went through various phases of development, explanation of mental
disorders also underwent evolution.
The ancient man thought that there was a "soul" inside the body of a person which was regarded as a
person within a person. This soul was responsible for a number of things including some mental symptoms
and diseases. In other words, the explanation of mental diseases according to the ancient man was that
mental diseases are caused by the abnormal activities of the soul. When the soul is disturbed, it causes
mental symptoms to appear.
The ancient man also thought that dreams were the result of soul's activities. According to him, soul
escaped a person's body when he slept and performed certain acts for him. These acts manifested in the
form of dreams.
The ancients also thought that a "mad" person was one who did not take interest in himself and happenings
around him. They thought that "mad" people live in world of their own, and "see" things that are not
present, and are involved in "spiritual experiences."
According to the ancient Greeks and Romans mentally ill people were possessed by spirits. Initially this idea
was held but later as the Greek and Roman civilizations flourished and developed their explanations of
mental disorders and illnesses were also reformed. They saw that mental symptoms are due to medical
problems and not spiritual in nature.
Some people regarded mentally ill people above normal people and thought they could foretell future.
Various decisions were referred to mentally ill people and they were held in high esteem, by these people.
Later in time, mad or mentally ill were regarded as witches and wizards, and instead of treating them they
were tortured and some were burnt to death. This practice was prevalent up to the 14th and the 15th century
when man had become much civilized as compared to the ancient man.
In the ancient times, some people also regarded "mad" or mentally sick as possessed by evil spirits and tried
various means of ridding them of these possessions. Such measures included physical torture, beating,
bleeding and burning alive. One of such measures which were used by the ancient Egyptian civilization was
trepanning. It was the process of drilling a hole in the skull of the mentally ill person to allow the evil or bad
spirit to escape.
As mentioned earlier, from 13th to 14th century the practice of torturing and killing mentally ill people
prevailed. This was mainly because mentally ill people were thought to be witches or wizards or possessed
by the devil. Many women and men were burnt alive for this reason. Even up to the fifteenth century
mentally sick people were considered to be possessed by evil spirits and were very cruelly treated. They were
treated the same as thieves, robbers, and beggars. They were chained, hand-cuffed and imprisoned.
As a result of the French Revolution and the beginning of the end of feudalism, many people had moved to
the cities because villages could not sustain them. There was not much food available and in search of it
they shifted. Further, as a result of the Industrial Revolution many people sought jobs in the industries and
therefore migrated to where they were set up. It resulted in creating of small industrial cities where huge
workforce of the industry dwelled. Furthermore, because of these mass migrations, existing cities and
industrial towns became crowded. In these populous cities, petty crime, unemployment and begging became
rampant. Those found guilty of such crimes were held and kept alongside those who were considered
mentally ill. This was one of the problems of the industrial revolution and the French revolution. Although
the outlook of mankind had changed and had become more rational, the problem of dealing with crimes
and mentally ill people became a daunting challenge. The need therefore arose to separate criminals and
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
group such people together and find a common solution for such social problems. The solution was to label
them mentally sick and put them in asylums and institutions specially made for such people. These
institutions were not meant to separate the mentally ill people from the society but their main aim was to
help these people recover. That is why Paris and Lyons, in France, and Bristol and Norwich in England
established asylums or institutions to house such people.
In other words, the purpose of these places was to "discipline" and "cure" the inmates. And the way to
"cure" them was to put them to work. Thus the criminal and the mentally ill were treated alike, put at the
same place and work was suggested as the main "cure" of their problems.
Putting the blame on individuals of the social changes and upheavals such as disappearance of feudalism
and the beginning of industrialization is termed scapegoating. Thus mentally sick people became the
scapegoats of problem arising from the end of feudalism and the problems of industrialization.
In the middle and end of the 18th century, as the outlook of man became more scientific and rational,
mental illness was beginning to be regarded as nervous diseases. This marked the beginning of a scientific
outlook towards mental diseases.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology