ZeePedia
History and Systems of Psychology

RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev

<< RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner >>
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 12
RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov is one of the greatest psychologists of the 20th century whose ideas left a long lasting
impact on the field. The importance of Pavlov's discoveries can be gauged from the fact that his theories, as
they emerged from his experiments, are today applicable to a very large area of psychology, including:
Animal/comparative psychology
o
Child psychology
o
Educational psychology
o
Organizational psychology
o
Industrial psychology
o
Sport psychology
o
Psychology of advertising
o
Clinical/Abnormal psychology
o
Psychotherapy
o
That is the magnanimity of the impact of Pavlov's discoveries on modern psychology.
29
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Vladimir Bekhterev (1857-1927)
Vladimir Bekhterev
Another contributor from Russia whose name deserves to be mentioned is Vladimir Bekhterev. He
was born in 1857 and died in 1927. He studied under Wilhelm Wundt, the psychologist who established the
first psychological laboratory at Leipzig, Germany.
One of the major contributions of Bekhterev is his experiments on animals and humans using mild
electric shocks. In other words, Bekhterev used electric shocks of low voltage which were not harmful, for
humans and animals. He then noted the response of the organisms to the shocks. The idea behind this
experiment was to trace the effect on learning. Bekhterev noted that shocks are associated with withdrawal
reaction. Withdrawal reaction means that humans and animals tend to move away from the source of the
stimulus. In other words, the action of the organism is to avoid the stimulus which was felt harmful by the
body. It therefore moved away. This response was called Associative reflex by Bekhterev. He stated that
associative reflex was learning which was similar to learning by conditioning as given by Pavlov.
Another contribution of Bekhterev is that he gave the idea of physical energy to explain the
phenomenon of consciousness. He proposed that consciousness is a form of physical energy. The energy
resulted in the person being aware of himself and his surroundings. He further stated that all higher
psychological functions such as thinking and generation of ideas are the forms of expression of physical
energy which represented the consciousness.
30
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology