Human Relations

REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People

<< REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 45
1. New model of career advancement
2. Taking control of yourself
3. Exerting control over the outside world
4. Managing personal finances
5. Budget
6. Achieving happiness
7. Apathy
8. Enhancing personal ethics
9. Helping Others Grow
1. New model of career advancement
The key components of the new model of career advancement are as follows:
Career portability (components)
1) More emphasis on horizontal growth, with a focus on new learning.
2) More emphasis on temporary leadership assignments.
3) Climbing the ladder of self-fulfillment
4) Being promoted as much for learn-how as know-how.
2. Taking control of yourself
If you have control over yourself then you will have control over the resources around. These points play an
important role in taking control of yourself.
ˇ  Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills
ˇ  Develop Expertise, Passion, and Pride
ˇ  Develop a Code of Professional Ethics
An ethical code determines what behaviour is right or wrong, good or bad, based on values. When faced
with an ethical dilemma, ask yourself three questions:
(1) Is it legal?
(2) Is it balanced? And (3) Is it right?
ˇ  Perform Well Including Going beyond Your Job Description
ˇ  Create Good First Impressions
ˇ  Document Your Accomplishments
ˇ  Be Conventional In Your Behaviour
ˇ  Take a Creative Approach to Your Job
ˇ  Keep Growing through Continuous Learning and Self-Development
ˇ  Observe Proper Etiquette
ˇ  Develop a Proactive Personality
ˇ  Take Sensible Risks
ˇ  Learn to Manage Adversity
ˇ  Develop the Brand Called You
3. Exerting control over the outside world
Exert some control over the outside environment. If the environment is not totally controlled, at least it is
juggled to one's advantage.
A. Develop a Flexible Career Path
1.  The Traditional Career Path
2.  The Horizontal Career Path
B. Have an Action Plan to Reach Your Goals
C. Achieve Broad Experience
Human Relations­ MGMT611
D. Be Visible
E. Find a Mentor
F. Manage Luck
G. Balance Your Life
4. Managing personal finances-1
Tips for managing personal finances
ˇ  Having a long term debt
It is not advisable to borrow money for longer period of time. Suppose the leasing of a car would
be counter productive, if you take it for seven years or more. In this way you will end up in paying
more amount of money.
ˇ  Giving Control of Your Money to Someone Else
If you give control of your money in the hands of others they might spend it lavishly.
ˇ  Spending Leaks
Spend your money according to the budget.
ˇ  Not Setting Goals
If you have not set any goals, you can not manage your finances.
ˇ  Incurring Too Much Debt
It is not a good habit to incur debts more than your needs. Avoid incurring debts unnecessarily. It
will be difficult to repay the debts in future.
ˇ  Cashing Out Retirement Funds
Avoid cashing out retirement funds. You will leave with nothing if you spend it earlier.
5. Budget
A budget is a plan for spending money to improve your chances of using your money wisely and not
spending more than net income.
Steps in budget making
Developing a budget can be divided into a series of logical steps.
ˇ  Estimating income
First of all estimate your income and then plan the spending of money. You should be aware of the total
amount that you have in order to develop realistic budget.
ˇ  Estimating expenses
Do this by keeping careful track of current spending.
ˇ  Comparing expenses and income.
Remember that the true profit from your labor is the difference between your net income and total
expenses. If you spend all your money and you are left with nothing, it is not sensible. You must save
something for unseen expenses that may arise in future.
ˇ  Carrying out the budget
Try to spend money according to your budget. If you spend more than the expected amount on various
things, then it is no use of making budget.
ˇ  Evaluating the Plan
A budget usually needs reworking until it fits your needs. You can evaluate your budget time to time.
Basic investment principles
In order to have happy, satisfied and financially secure life, in this lecture you will learn the investment
principles. The person might consider the following eight investment principles.
1. Spend less money than you earn. The key to lifelong financial security and peace of mind is to spend
less money than you earn.
2. Invest early and steadily to capitalize on the benefits of compounding.
3. Keep reinvesting dividends.
4. Diversify your investments (use asset allocation). Do not invest all your savings in one business.
5. Maintain a disciplined, long-term approach. You must have a goal in your mind.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
6. Practice contrary investing. To become wealthy, buy investments when the demand for them is very
low and sell when the demand is very high.
7. Invest globally as well as domestically. Yet be aware of the risks, such as a currency devaluation or
political turmoil.
8. Pay off debt. Paying off debt generally provides an outstanding return on investment.
Choosing your investment
After understanding key investment principles, the person is ready to invest. Investments can be categorized
into two basic types:
1. Lending money (fixed-income investment)
2. Owning assets (equity investment)
Types of investments
These are various types of investments.
1. Certificates of Deposits.
These investment vehicles (CDs) require a time commitment from ten days to upwards of ten years, but
they pay high interest.
2. Money-Market Funds.
Banks and other financial-service firms offer relatively high rates through money-market mutual funds.
3. Treasury Securities.
The government offers different types of secure investments to the public: treasury bills, treasury notes,
treasury bonds, defense savings certificates, etc.
4. Corporate Bonds.
Corporate bonds are essentially loans to businesses, and pay interest commensurate with their risk.
5. Common Stocks.
Investing in stocks usually means buying and selling common stocks.
6. Mutual Funds.
In this type of investment, a group of professionals invest your money in stocks, bonds, or other types of
7. Real Estate.
A starting point in real estate investing is to be a homeowner. In the long-run, most homes increase in value
faster than inflation, and offer tax advantages.
8. Gold Bullion.
Gold has long been considered a sound long-term investment despite its serious decline in value in recent
9. Coins, Antiques, Paintings, and other Collectibles.
If you are looking for an expensive hobby that might pay off financially, collectibles are ideal.
10. Life Insurance.
Financial planning usually includes some life insurance.
6. Achieving happiness
Research and opinion about happiness indicate that people can take concrete steps to achieve happiness.
Planning for happiness is possible because it appears to be somewhat under people's control. Many
researchers consider happiness to be a natural human condition. Lyken observes that those genes that
combine to produce a happy person were favored by natural selection.
Happiness is a by-product of having the various components of life working in harmony and synchrony.
The various components of life must spin together like 6 gears. The components for many people would
1. Work and career,
2. Interpersonal life including loved ones,
3. Physical and mental health,
4. Financial health,
5. Interests and pastimes, and
6. Spiritual life or belief system.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
A related approach to finding happiness is to follow the five principles of psychological functioning
recommended by popular psychologist Richard Carlson. One can be happy by learning the techniques and
skills of self-management.
1. The first principle is thinking. Directing your thinking in a positive direction will enhance your
happiness. Think positive and be optimist. Positive thinking always leads towards acquiring
2. The second principle is moods. Ignoring bad moods contributes to happiness. Learn to control
your mood.
3. The third principle is separate psychological realities, suggesting that you accept the idea that people
think differently. All the people can not think alike, you must have the ability to listen to the
other peoples' point of view and accept them as they are.
4. The fourth principle is feelings. If you feel discontented, for example, clear the head and start
thinking positively. Enjoy what you have, don't spoil your life by craving for what you don't
5. The fifth principle of psychological functioning is the present moment. The present moment is
where most people find happiness and inner peace. One can not change one's past, neither can
predicts one's future. The only thing in one's hands is the present. Focus on your present and
be happy.
7. Apathy
Apathy is the lack of feeling, emotion, interest or concern. Apathy can apply to an opinion, situation or life
in general and can become a serious mental concern when you stop caring about everything and everyone
around you (sometimes including yourself).
Apathy and society: Apathy is permeating in our society increasingly. Suppose, if somebody happens to
meet a road accident, nobody bothers to stop and look after him. It demonstrates the public apathetic
behaviour. It is a difficult and challenging process to encourage and to motivate individuals to take on
responsibility, to become socially, culturally, economically, and environmentally conscious.
Apathy and leaders: Leaders like to control and appreciate submissiveness and passivity. If you do not
take charge of your life and take stand on principles. It will be injurious to your personal and organizational
development and growth.
Cure or remedy: One should try to take remedial measures to address the issue of apathy.
ˇ  If you are afflicted by apathy, then lack of direction may well be at the root of that.
ˇ  It might be advisable to take a break and have a go at something you know you enjoy doing, but
that has nothing whatsoever to do with what you're supposed to be doing.
ˇ  If you can't raise any enthusiasm for your work, subvert it. Do something else what you like. Apathy kills
your enthusiasm.
ˇ  Exercise is a way of battling apathy. Physical exercise lessens apathy or inaction.
ˇ  Get organized. Try to perform various tasks. Avoid monotony, it also generates apathy. You will
become more productive, more active, more useful by organizing your time.
ˇ  Avoid watching television too much. Participate in activities like sports, etc.
ˇ  Moving the mind. Think about various things happening to other people. If others are developing,
how they are developing or making progress.
8. Enhancing personal ethics
Ethics may also be defined as a set of standards that help to determine the difference between right or
Modern work ethics: In the organizations, the rules and regulations are formulated to promote
accountability and integrity. Personal and organizational goals should be achieved following the principles
and code of conduct of set by the organizations. People shall be guided in their work and their professional
conduct by a balanced framework of values: democratic, professional, ethical and people-oriented
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Ethical values: Acting at all times in such a way as to uphold the social and organizational trust. Workers
should perform their duties and arrange their private affairs so that organizational confidence and trust is
maintained. If a conflict arises between the private interests and the organizational work, the conflict should
normally be resolved in favour of the organization.
Why Be Concerned About Business Ethics? People are motivated by both self-interest and moral
commitments, so you have to watch out both carefully. The organizations that follow ethical values always
have long term goals, instead of short term goals.
Common ethical problems: Here we discuss some common ethical problems that one has to face in
ˇ  Dealing with confidential information.
ˇ  Presentation of employment information (many people lie or distort information).
ˇ  Use of corporate resources (e.g. using company resources for personal benefit).
ˇ  Misuse of computers and information technology (including piracy).
ˇ  Choosing between two rights: Dealing with defining moments.
Guidelines for Behaving Ethically: Following a Guide to Ethical Decision Making
These points are of great importance, while taking decisions.
ˇ  Gather the facts. If you have collected the right information and facts then you will be able to
take right decisions.
ˇ  Define the ethical issues. It will help you taking right decision.
ˇ  Identify the affected parties. Keep in mind that is going to be affected by your decision.
ˇ  Identify the consequences. Think about what can be the result of your decision.
ˇ  Identify the obligations. Who is obligated to do what?
ˇ  Consider your character and integrity.
ˇ  Think creatively about your potential actions. You can minimize the bad consequences by
thinking creatively.
ˇ  Check your intuition. Whenever you make any decision, use your intuitive skills. It will help
you in taking good decisions.
ˇ  Developing strong relationships with work associates. (e.g., two people with strong ties to
each other are more likely to be honest with each other.)
ˇ  Using corporate ethics programs. (e.g., a committee that monitors ethical behavior and an
ethics training program)
ˇ  Follow an applicable code of professional conduct (e.g., "A legal assistant must protect the
confidences of a client...") an ethical relationship is a basic and trustworthy relationship
between persons and organizations.
9. Helping Others Grow
Helping others grow strengthens the human relationships. When you help others, you help yourself as well.
When you pave the way for others, others will have positive feelings for you. They will give you respect and
you will see that your relationships with others are improving. As a matter of fact you enrich your own life
by being helpful to others.
Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People
Dealing with difficult people is an art. Almost everyone has to face with difficult people in one form or the
other. How to deal with difficult people at work place depends on your abilities. Here are a few tips to deal
with difficult people.
ˇ  Give ample feedback. Don't be hostile or adverse. Constructive feedback improves the
ˇ  Criticize constructively. Positive criticism will help others improve their behaviour.
ˇ  Help the difficult person feel more confident.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
ˇ  Use tact and diplomacy. If you are dealing with him/her tactfully, he/she would not remain
that much difficult for you.
ˇ  Use non-hostile humour. Do not take his/her undesirable attitude seriously. If you use
humour and jokes in dealing with difficult people. It will decrease the tension.
ˇ  Reinforce civil behaviour and good moods. Be positive and civilized with others. You will
become better worker and person if you learn to reinforce civil behaviour.
Remember, it is always desirable to help others grow.
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People