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Journalistic Writing

RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations

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Journalistic Writing ­ MCM310
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LECTURE 27
RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES
Research writing steps:
1. Select a topic.
2. Frame a central research question and set of sub-questions.
3. Survey the topic.
4. Locate materials.
5. Re-evaluate your topic and research strategy.
6. Evaluate your sources.
7. Work with your sources.
8. Develop your thesis and supporting argument.
9. Use sources fairly and accurately by integrating and citing your sources.
10. Revise
11. Edit and Proofread
Why Use Global Format (APA, MLA etc.)?
·  Allows readers to cross-reference your sources easily:
This cross-referencing system allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This
is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects.
·
Provides consistent format within a discipline:
Using standard APA or MLA properly will allow you to communicate more effectively with other
researchers who also use these formats. When a style is used consistently, others can easily find where
you've listed your resources.
·
Gives you credibility as a writer:
The proper use of global format shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their
source material.
·
Protects yourself from plagiarism
Plagiarism is a serious offense not only in the university system but also in the professional and intellectual
circles, and may result in punishments.
APA Style: Two Main Concerns
·  Reference Page
·
Parenthetical Citations
Reference Page
Most citations should contain the following basic information:
·  Author's name
·
Title of work
·
Publication information
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Journalistic Writing ­ MCM310
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Example:
O'Connor. (1990). Express Yourself in Written English. Illinois: NTS
References: Some Examples
Book
Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Touchstone.
Article
in
a
Magazine
Klein, J. (1998, October 5). Dizzy days The New Yorker pages 40-45
Web
page
Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button Roughcut Retrieved October
28,
1998
from
http://www.roughcut.com
A
newspaper
article
Tommasini, A. (1998, October 27). Master teachers whose artistry glows in private New York Times page
B2
A
source
with
no
known
author
Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises. (1999, September 14). New York Times page A17
When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations?
·  When quoting any words that are not your own
Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks
·
When summarizing facts and ideas from a source
Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them,
using your own words
·
When paraphrasing a source
Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your
own words
Keys to Parenthetical Citations
Most citations should contain the following basic information:
·  Author's name
·
Publication
·
Page
Example:
"Seek first to understand, then to be understood." (Covey, 1992, p.45)
Handling Quotes in Your Text
·  Author's last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a "delayed, uncontrolled repetitive
appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena" (p.11)
A traumatic response frequently entails a "delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of
hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena" (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
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Handling Parenthetical Citations
Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .
1. More than one author with the same last name
(H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
2. Two or more works in the same parentheses
(Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997)
3. Work with six or more authors
(Smith et al, 1998)
4. Specific part of a source
(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
5. If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:
Full Title: "California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers"
Citation: ("California," 1999)
6. A reference to a personal communication:
Source: email message from C. Everett Koop
Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
7. A
general
reference
to
a
web
site
Source: Bartleby Resources
Citation:
(http://www.bartleby.com)
Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and
Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women's personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic
effects. Feminist researchers now concur that "It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war
have been ignored" (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by
collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).
However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study "treated memory and culture as if they
belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions" (p. 6).
CROSS-REFERENCING: USING MLA FORMAT
MLA Style: Two Parts
·  Works Cited Page
·
Parenthetical Citations
Works Cited
Most citations should contain the following basic information:
·  Author's name
·
Title of work
·
Publication information
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Works Cited: Some Examples
Book
Byatt, A. S. Babel Tower. New York: Random House, 1996.
Article in a Magazine
Klein, Joe. "Dizzy Days" The New Yorker 5 Oct. 1998: 40-45.
Web page
Poland, Dave. "The Hot Button" Roughcut 26 Oct. 1998. Turner Network Television 28 Oct. 1998
<www.roughcut.com>.
A newspaper article
Tommasini, Anthony. "Master Teachers Whose Artistry Glows in Private" New York Times 27 Oct. 1998: B2.
A source with no known author
"Cigarette Sales Fall 30% as California Tax Rises." New York Times 14 Sept. 1999: A17.
A TV interview
McGwire, Mark. Interview with Matt Lauer, the Today Show NBC WTHR, Indianapolis 22 Oct. 1998
A personal interview
Mellencamp, John. Personal interview 27 Oct. 1998
Keys to Parenthetical Citations
Most citations should contain the following basic information:
·  Author's name
·
Page
Example:
"Seek first to understand, then to be understood" (Covey, p.45).
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful
feelings" (263).
Handling Parenthetical Citations: Sometimes more information is necessary
More than one author with the same last name
(W. Wordsworth 23); (D. Wordsworth 224)
More than one work by the same author
(Joyce, Portrait 121); (Joyce, Ulysses 556)
Different volumes of a multivolume work
(1: 336)
Citing indirect sources
(Johnson qtd. in Boswell 2:450)
If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:
Full Title: "California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers"
Citation: ("California" A14)
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If the source is only one page in length or is a web page with no apparent pagination:
Source: Dave Poland's "Hot Button" web column
Citation: (Poland)
Handling Long Quotations
David becomes identified and defined by James Steerforth, a young man with whom David is acquainted from
his days at Salem House. Before meeting Steerforth, David accepts Steerforth's name as an authoritative
power:
There was an old door in this playground, on which the boys had a custom of carving their names. . . .
In my dread of the end of the vacation and their coming back, I could not read a boy's name, without inquiring
in what tone and with what emphasis he would read, "Take care of him. He bites." There was one boy--a
certain J. Steerforth--who cut his name very deep and very often, who I conceived, would read it in a rather
strong voice, and afterwards pull my hair. (Dickens 68)
For Steerforth, naming becomes an act of possession, as well as exploitation. Steerforth names David
for his fresh look and innocence, but also uses the name Daisy to exploit David's romantic tendencies (Dyson
122).
Source: http://www.apastyle.org
http://www.mla.org/
Purdue University Sources
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISTIC WRITING:Practical, THINGS TO KNOW
  2. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  3. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  4. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Achieve appropriate readability:
  5. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Be concise, Be creative, Be correct
  6. THE PROCESS OF WRITING:INVENTION, WHEN YOU START TO WRITE
  7. THE PROCESS OF WRITING II:ORGANIZING, DRAFTING, REVISING
  8. ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES
  9. DICTIONARY-A WRITER’S LANGUAGE TOOL:KINDS OF INFORMATION
  10. PARTS OF SPEECH:Noun Gender, Noun Plurals, Countable Nouns
  11. BASIC CLAUSE PATTERNS
  12. ACTIVE AND PASSSIVE VOICE
  13. MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES
  14. REPORTED SPEECH:Indirect Questions, Direct commands
  15. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES:SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
  16. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES II:SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
  17. EFFECTIVE SENTENCE:PARALLELISM, NEEDED WORDS, SHIFTS
  18. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS I:COLLOQUIAL VS FORMAL, CIRCUMLOCUTION
  19. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS II:AMBIGUITY, REDUNDANCY, EUPHEMISM:
  20. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:STRUCTURE
  21. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play
  22. ESSAY WRITING:VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS, PROMPTS
  23. SIGNAL WORDS:Non word Emphasis Signals
  24. EXPOSITORY WRITING:LOGICAL FALLACIES, APPEAL TO EMOTION
  25. THE WRITING STYLES: REPORT and NARRATIVE WRITING, SHORT REPORTS
  26. THE WRITING STYLES: DESCRIPTIVE AND PERSUASIVE WRITINGS, Observation
  27. RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations
  28. Summary and Précis Writing:CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SUMMARY
  29. Punctuation:THE PERIOD, THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, THE COLON
  30. MECHANICS:ABBREVIATIONS, NUMBERS, SPELLING, THE HYPHEN
  31. READING SKILLS FOR WRITERS:EDUCATED READING, STEPS
  32. PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:Box-out, By-line, Caption, Exclusive, Feature
  33. THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEWSPAPERS II:BROADSHEET NEWSPAPER
  34. News Writing and Style I:WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A NEWSPAPER
  35. NEWS WRITING II:Accuracy, Clarity, Style, Qualities of Effective Leads
  36. EDITORIAL WRITING:WRITING AN EDITORIAL:STRUCTURING AN EDITORIAL
  37. WRITING FEATURES:GENERATING FEATURE STORY IDEAS
  38. WRITING COLUMNS:Column and a news report, Purpose, Audience
  39. WRITING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS:The Heading, The Lead
  40. WRITING ANALYSIS:purpose, scope, method, results, recommendations
  41. LETTERS TO EDITORS:Four important aspects about letters, Organizing letters
  42. BROADCAST AND WEB NEWS WRITING:WRITE CONCISELY, BROADCAST STYLE
  43. WRITING PRESS RELEASE, REVIEWS AND OBITUARIES:Summary of Content:
  44. THE ART OF INTERVIEWINGS
  45. FINAL THOUGHTS:Practical, Job-Related, Social, Stimulating, Therapeutic