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History and Systems of Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 42
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD
CHINA AND PAKISTAN
As mentioned in earlier lectures, third world countries are those regions and countries that gained
independence and self-rule after World War II. These countries were either under the occupation of
America or the European countries. Few of these were also under the occupation of other forces. For
example, countries such as Pakistan, India, most of the countries in Africa, some in the Far East as Vietnam
and Indonesia, and the biggest of them all was China, are included in the list of third world countries. The
Second World War brought numerous sufferings to mankind. Millions of human lives were lost, but this
great disaster in the history of mankind also resulted in freeing most of these regions and countries form the
curse of modern slavery or colonialism. Following is a review of psychology in some of the third world
countries.
Psychology in China
China became free from foreign domination in 1949, under the leadership of Mao-Tze-Tung, who was a
leader of the Chinese Communist Party. Before the revolution of 1949 China was under the influence of
American psychologists. Peking University offered the first course in psychology in the first decade of the
20th century related to American psychologist's view point. The books of American psychologists notably,
William James and John Dewey were translated into Chinese and became a part of the Chinese courses of
psychology. James is considered the founder of the functionalism. William James put forward the view that
consciousness is not epiphenomena, which means that consciousness cannot be considered as something
whose functions or working cannot be explained.
John Dewey was an educationist who put forward the view that education, particularly of children, should
be based upon the needs of the children. This means that children of different ages have different needs.
The education system should concentrate on understanding those needs and should adjust itself to meet the
needs. John Dewey also delivered lectures at various places in China during 1919 and 1920.
Another American psychologist named Sailor, who had been educated at Teachers College Columbia
University, delivered lectures in China. After the revolution of 1949 in China, Sailor came to Pakistan and
delivered lectures in Lahore and other places. So psychology in China before 1949 could be called
functionalist psychology. It also carried the influence of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
When the Communist party gained control of the country in 1949, they recognized psychology as an
important field of study. Psychology was recognized as a separate science in 1950 in China. In 1956 a
commission was established to prepare a plan for the progress of psychology in China. As a result of
recommendations of the commission and other sources, three branches of psychology gained permanence
in China. They were:
Clinical Psychology
o
Psychology of work and labor
o
Educational Psychology
o
In Clinical Psychology research was undertaken in diagnostics and treatment of mental disorders,
particularly schizophrenia and manic depressive psychosis. Chinese psychologists developed what they
called "Speedy Synthetic Method" for treatment of mental disorders.
In the realm of Psychology of Work or Labor, manual labor was declared to be superior as compared to
mental labor. Chinese psychologists discovered ways by which efficiency of manual labor could be
increased.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
In the field of Educational Psychology the highest resource and efforts were diverted. Educational
psychologists looked into ways and means of improving student's moral and ethical behavior. They started
manual labor classes for students.
Chinese psychologists also did research on the developmental stages of growth in children and found out
the best age for schooling etc. These were the main features of the developments of psychology in China
after the revolution of 1949.
Psychology in Pakistan
Pakistan became an independent country in 1947. At the time of partition there were only two departments
offering master's degree in psychology. One at Dacca, East Pakistan, now Bangladesh and the other was
Government College Lahore, affiliated with Punjab University where master's classes were being held.
Later, RajShahi University in East Pakistan/Bangladesh started offering masters degree and then Punjab
University also set up the Applied Psychology Department. Later post graduate departments were also
opened at Peshawar University, Karachi University and other colleges in Punjab.
The main specializations taught at these institutions were:
Psychodynamics, particularly the Freudian/Jungian approaches
o
Social Psychology
o
Clinical Psychology
o
Experimental and General Psychology
o
Psychological Measurement
o
Still later a National Institute of Psychology was set up at Islamabad, which undertook research in the areas
of developmental psychology, forensic psychology, psychological measurement, etc. The NIP was later
merged with Islamabad University.
Graduates from these institutions have been employed in the armed forces, the labor departments,
education departments, public service commissions in the public sector, and in private sector, in advertising
and marketing organizations and organizations undertaking research. Most prominent educational
institutions now offer master's and post master's courses and degrees. Many graduates from these institutes
are engaged in private practice and consultation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology