ZeePedia
History and Systems of Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY

<< PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology >>
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 43
PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
We will now touch upon two relatively modern areas of psychology; the first is organizational psychology
and industrial psychology. It may be defined as the application of psychological principles and techniques to
business and industrial problems. For example, psychology may be used in the selection of personnel or
development of training programs for the employees which may enhance their productivity, make them
more efficient and hence result in betterment of the organization.
In other words, industrial and organizational psychology are two new branches of psychology which aim at
improving overall performance of industrial and organizational workforce in order to improve the
productivity of the organization as a whole. Industrial psychology in particular, deals with labor force that
works in factories etc., while organizational psychology deals with psychology of members of any
organization, may it be an educational institute or a team. Some areas which are studied under the umbrella
of organizational/industrial psychology include:
Organizational design
o
Organizational design studies how to deal with the design of organization which meets the
requirements and needs. For example, an organization may be tall or flat, i.e. having greater layers of
management or lesser layers of management.
Organizational culture
o
Organizational culture studies how to deal with the culture within the organization. Every organization
has its own set of values which are expected to be followed by every member of the organization.
These values determine the overall productivity of the employees. Organization culture deals with the
principles that govern such cultural practices. It sets out guidelines to develop, maintain and reform (if
needed) the organizational culture.
Globalization
o
Globalization refers to a phenomenon which is often misperceived to be quite recent. Globalization
means the world becoming one global village where distances present no more a hurdle to
communication, trade, mobility of factors, exchange of ideas etc. An important aspect of globalization
is that it allows mobility of workforce to move from one part of the globe to another. This mobility of
workforce has had a significant impact on the working of organizations which has become more
diversified in terms of labor force composition. A modern organization may employee a workforce
comprising of members from various countries other than its origin. Therefore, globalization also plays
a significant role in determining industrial psychology.
Diversity
o
Diversity refers to the workforce of an organization comprising of individuals with different
characteristics and traits which may differ to a great extent. Modern organizations, in order to survive in
harsh competition need to diversify their workforce. Therefore, diversity studies shape a vital part of
industrial psychology studies.
Personality related factors in organizations
o
Personality related factors in organizations refer to factors such as motivation of the employee or
attitude of the employee towards the organization and his work. Therefore, organizations need to
concentrate on such factors which are now a part of industrial and organizational psychology. A
motivated employee, for instance, would be more productive and would be more useful for the
organization.
95
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Leadership
o
Leadership styles are also studied under industrial and organizational psychology. Leadership is an
important determinant of overall productivity of the organization, team or group. Therefore,
organizations tend to determine the best possible leadership styles for their managers.
Stress and Fatigue
o
Stress management is another area under the umbrella of industrial and organizational psychology.
American organizations spend a huge amount of money on stress management of their employees.
Many productive employees lose their productivity because of work stress. Therefore, psychologists
need to determine ways and means to help these people with stress management. Stress results into
fatigue for the employees which need to be handled before it mars the productivity of the employees.
The best way to do it, is to help the employees manage their work stress.
Selection and Training
o
Selection and training are also a part of industrial and organizational psychology. Psychologists are hired
to determine the personality characteristics of the employee and find the best fit for the organization
who would suit the needs and requirements of the work being assigned to him and would be productive
for the organization. Further, training, such as, to manage stress, diversity training, etc. are also areas
under study in industrial and organizational psychology which help the employee to be more
productive.
Another more recent expansion of the subject of psychology is Environmental Psychology. Environmental
psychology focuses on human interaction with environment. It deals in how humans effect environment
and how in turn environment affects human psychology. It includes such topics as
Personal Space
o
Personal Space is the region surrounding each person, or that area which a person considers his domain
or territory. Often if entered by another being without this being desired, it makes them feel
uncomfortable. The amount of space a being (person, plant, animal) needs falls into two categories,
immediate individual physical space (determined by imagined boundaries), and the space an individual
considers theirs to live in (often called habitat). These are dependent on many things, such as growth
needs, habits, courtships, etc
Territoriality
o
Territories may be held by an individual, a mated pair, or a group which are then defended by them
from intrusion of outsiders. Territoriality is only expected to emerge where there is a focused resource
that provides enough for the individual or group, within a boundary that is small enough to be
defended without the expenditure of too much effort.
Environment toxins
o
Environment toxins are things which are harmful for the environment in which humans live and
therefore, in turn harm human beings as well. For example, noise pollution may be a cause of fatigue.
Temperature changes which are caused due to human beings, such as that explained by global warming
are also studied under this topic.
Organizational psychology, Industrial psychology and Environmental Psychology are some of the new areas
where modern psychology is growing and expanding.
96
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology