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PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program

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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Lesson 30
PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING
In this lecture we talk about ways of implementing relaxation procedures, energizing strategies, imaging, and
hypnosis for the purpose of developing psychological skill. Our primary focus in this regard has been
facilitation of athletic performance. Learning how to focus attention, increase self-confidence, and control
the debilitating effects of anxiety and worry is important for both athletes and nonathletes.
In this lecture we will be discussing the following topics:
1.
Effectiveness of psychological intervention programs
2.
Differentiating between psychological skills and methods
3.
Measurement of psychological skills
4.
A psychological skills training program
Effectiveness of Psychological Intervention Programs
A number of literature reviews have been published that verify that planned psychological interventions and
programs are effective in enhancing athletic performance (Greenspan & Feltz, 1989; Vealey, 1994;
Weinberg & Comar, 1994).These reviews confirm that of approximately forty-five studies reviewed, thirty-
eight, or 85 percent, have found positive performance effects (Weinberg & Williams, 2001). In addition, a
number of more recent investigations have also supported the effectiveness of psychological interventions.
Psychological intervention programs are effective in increasing self-confidence, focusing attention,
energizing effort, and enhancing athletic performance.
Differentiating Between Psychological Skills and Methods
Coaches and athletes often use the terms psychological skills and psychological method as synonyms, when
they actually have different meanings. Psychological methods, techniques, or strategies refer to practices that
lead to psychological skill. Examples of psychological methods include goal setting, imagery, progressive
relaxation, meditation, self-talk, and hypnosis. Each of these psychological methods, when properly learned
and applied, lead to enhanced psychological skill. Conversely, psychological skill refer to learned or innate
characteristics of an athlete that make it possible or even likely that she will succeed in sport. Examples of
psychological skill include intrinsic motivation, self-confidence, attentional control, arousal control, anxiety
control, and general self-awareness.
Measurement of Psychological Skills
Several inventories have been developed that are designed to measure psychological skills used by athletes.
Before adopting a specific inventory, the practitioner should become familiar with the reliability, validity,
and psychometric properties of the selected inventory.
1. Psychological skills inventory for sports
The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS-5) was developed by Mahoney, Gabriel, and Perkins
(1987). The PSIS-5 (5th version) is a 45-item inventory that measures the psychological skills of anxiety
control, concentration, confidence, mental preparation , motivation, and team orientation.
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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
2. Athletic coping skills inventory
The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) was developed by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek (1995).
It measures the psychological skills of coping with adversity, peaking under pressure, goal setting/mental
preparation, concentration, freedom from worry, confidence and achievement motivation, and coachability.
3. Test of performance strategies
The Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) was developed by Thomas, Murphy, and Hardy (1999). It
measures a combination of methods and skills of athletes in strategic situations. Factors measured by the
TOPS in the competitive situation include self-talk, emotional control, automaticity, goal setting, imagery,
activation, negative thinking, and relaxation. Factors measured by the TOPS in the practice situation include
the same factors used in the competitive situation, with the exception that negative thinking is replaced by
attentional control.
Psychological Skills Training Program
A number of psychological skills training programs have been proposed. A sample psychological skill
training program is give below. It has seven phases.
Psychological Skills Training Program (PSTP)
Phase 1: Who is the Client?
They determine who the client is.
Phase 2: Initial Meeting with Athletes.
Initial meeting is critical
Phase 3: Education of the Sport Psychologist Relative to Activity
Period of self-education will be required to help the sport psychologist bridge the gap from being a novice
to being fully knowledgeable and conversant about the sport.
Phase 4: Development of a Needs Assessment Plan
The sport psychologist must have a working knowledge of athletes' current psychological skills. This can be
accomplished only through formal and informal assessment.
1)
Interview
2)
Performance profiling
3)
Observation of athletes during practice and competition
4)
Use of objective pencil and paper inventories
Phase 5: Psychological Methods and Strategies to be Taught
In this phase, a master plan is developed in terms of what, when, and in what sequence psychological
methods are to be taught to address psychological skill weaknesses.
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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Phase 6: Actual Teaching and Learning of Selected Psychological Methods
1. Psychological Methods to be taught, practiced , and applied in competition to enhance psychological
skills
a.  Goal setting
b. Relaxation
c.  Self-talk
d. Imagery
e.  Attention skills
f.  Self-hypnosis
2. Performance Routines to be taught, practiced, and applied in competition to enhance psychological
skills
Phase 7: Ongoing and End-of-Session Evaluation of PSTP
For best results, the PSTP must be continually reviewed and evaluated.
References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York: McGraw-
Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants