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PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines

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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Lesson 31
PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING
Who Is the Client?
The first and most critical thing that must be determined by the sport psychologist is who the client is. If
the client is the athletic department of the university, then the athletic department defines the nature of the
relationship between the sport psychologist and the athlete or the coach. If the client is the coach, then the
coach defines the nature of the relationship between the sport psychologist and the athlete. Finally if the
athlete is the client, then the athlete defines the nature of nature of relationship.
Initial Meeting with the Athletes
The initial meeting between the sport psychologist and the athletes is pivotal for emphasizing the need for
commitment to the PSTP. Coaches and athletes recognize the importance of physical practice and training
to prepare for peak performance. Athletes must be equally committed to psychological skills training.
Psychological skills training must be viewed as an equal partner to the practicing of physical skills.
Education of the Sport Psychologist relative to Activity
Athletes find it easier to relate to a sport psychologist who understands the nuances of the sport that the
athletes are trying to excel in. If a sport psychologist cannot relate to an athlete's feelings in a critical game
situation, she will have difficulty gaining the confidence of the athlete. A sport psychologist must be more
than a psychologist; she must also be an exercise and sport scientist.
Development of a Needs Assessment Plan
In order to develop a needs assessment plan, the sport psychologist must determine the psychological skill
strengths and weaknesses of each athlete and of a team as a whole. This is accomplished through a series of
interviews and test administrations as indicated below.
Interview
An open-ended interview is an important way for the sport psychologist to establish a trusting relationship
with the athlete. In this interview, the sport psychologist learns the athlete's attitudes about sport
psychology, and his perceptions about psychological strengths and weaknesses.
Performance profiling
The athlete then indicates on a scale of 1 to 10 where she feels she falls on that rating scale. This process
has been labeled performance profiling. Areas of potential psychological skill improvement may include
intrinsic motivation, self-awareness, self-esteem, self-confidence, attentional focus, and arousal control.
Observation of athletes during practice and competition
Regardless of an athlete's perception of personal psychological skill, it is informative to observe the athlete
during game-like situations to see how he deals with pressure. This will make it possible to affirm the
athlete's belief system about psychological skill. If differences exist between observed and perceived
psychological skills, then additional interviews might prove beneficial.
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan
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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Use of objective Pencil-and-paper inventories.
Where appropriate, inventories such as 16-PF and POMS should be administered and carefully evaluated
relative to other subjectively determined information.
Psychological Methods and Strategies to be Taught
Based on needs assessment, it should be clear to the sport psychologist which areas of psychological skill
the athletes are strong in and which areas they are weak in. It is likely that different athletes will exhibit
different profiles relative to their psychological skills. Based on this information, the sport psychologist
develops a master plan detailing how to enhance psychological skill through the application of various
psychological methods strategies, and techniques. Timing and sequencing of the delivery of psychological
methods is also determined as this time.
Actual Teaching and Learning of Selected Psychological Methods
During this phase, the actual teaching of psychological method is taught with a specific purpose in mind in
terms of enhancing psychological skill. For example, if the athlete is lacking in the psychological skill of
displaying self-confidence prior to competition, self-talk, self-hypnosis, and imagery might prove to be
particularly effective.
Psychological methods to be taught and practiced
An incomplete list of potential psychological methods to be taught include goal setting, relaxation, self-talk,
imagery, attention skills, and self- hypnosis.
Performance routines
Performance routine, whether used before, during, or after the execution of a closed motor skill, are
designed to help the athletes focus attention appropriately. Research has validated the use of performance
routines in sport (Hill & Borden, 1995; Lidor & Singer, 2000)
Ongoing and End-Of-Season Evaluation of PSTP
If a psychological skills training program extends across an entire sport season, it is imperative that it be
evaluated at the end of the season. If psychological inventories were administered during the needs
assessment phase of the program, these same inventories can be administered at the end of the season,
noting changes and improvements in variables of importance.
If an athlete feels uncomfortable about a specific psychological method that she is learning, there is no need
to continue it to the end of the program.
References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York:
McGraw-Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants