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Radio News Reporting and Production

PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program

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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 31
PRODUCTION AND PLANNING
To produce
To produce is to create something especially when skill is needed.
Production
Production is the process of creating something (film, drama, documentary, musical) with skill and
knowledge.
Producer
Producer is the person who is in-charge of the production.
What is a Program?
"A plan of things that will be done or included in the development of something; something that people
watch on TV or listen to on radio is called a program.
Format
Format is the general arrangement, plan or design of a program. The Basic Structure of a Programme is
called format. For instance,
News
Talk
Feature
Drama
Magazine programme
Stage show
Musicals
Role of a Producer
Producer's role in the process of production is to conceive, plan, and produce a programme.
To conceive means to think of an idea
The idea is actually a concept.
To plan is to make detailed arrangements for the idea you wish to materialize in future.
Where Ideas Come From?
The important areas where ideas can be obtained from are as under:
Society
Social conflicts
Government policies
Art (literature)
Science
Principals of Planning a Program
1. Motive of the program (why this program?)
The first and foremost thing that a producer has to keep forth before producing a program is to face the
most important question, that is; why this program? Which means what is the purpose of this program that
he wishes to produce. The following are the possible purposes or motives which make a producer conceive
a program:
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
To create awareness amongst the listeners about social problems, traffic laws, hazards of narcotics,
need of education, the law, rights and responsibilities, diseases, etc.
To give information about government policies, new inventions, advancements in medicine, new
techniques in agriculture, sports, etc.
To educate ­ the modern methods of sowing, ploughing, harvesting, civic virtues, Qur'aan &
Sunnah
To entertain ­ music, comedy, drama, showbiz, fashion etc.
2. Research of Target Audience
It means, who the program is to be produced for i.e. the target audience. The research of the target
audience is very important step in the pre-production process. Unless a producer does not know exactly the
nature, desires and needs of the target audience, the effective message can not be written.
While conducting research of the target audience following areas are to be focused upon:
The Age group of the target audience ------------ Kids; Youth; Adults
The Gender ------------------------------------------- Men; Women; Both
Socio-cultural Background ------------------------- Rural, Urban, Middle Class, Elite Class
3. Content of the program
The very next question is; what is to be given in the programme. It signifies the content or the matter of the
program.
4. Selection of Format
A producer has to select a format which he thinks will be suitable to convey the message of the program.
The following are some important formats:
Talk, Feature, Drama, Documentary, Magazine Program, Interview etc.
5. Duration of the Program
The duration plays vital in the effectiveness of the program. While making a program a producer must note
that the final duration of the program must be 30 to 40 seconds less than the actual duration so that after
the end of a program the announcer may have sufficient time to make the announcement of the upcoming
program.
5- Minute Program = 4 minutes and 20-30 sec
15- Minute Program = 14 minutes and 20-30 sec
30- Minute Programme = 29 minutes and 20-30 sec
6. Time of Broadcast
Another important question is; what time the program should go on air. It depends on the following points:
The Nature of the Programme
The Availability of the Target Audience
7. Frequency of the Program
Frequency of a program means how often a program should go on air; whether once a week or twice a
week, or on alternate days or daily basis.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
8. Feedback
Planning to know the feed back of the listeners is very important. A producer has to arrange for a way the
audience may express their views and comments about the program they have listened to. The following are
different modes and routes audience may reach to the producer.
Letters; Telephone; E-mail; Personal Contacts etc.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI ĖTHE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. Ė 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTERíS QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporterís Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Childrenís Programs, Womenís programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production