Human Relations

PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 07
Every individual can be well motivated to achieve success in work and in personal life. High motivation
facilitates achieving high productivity and quality. It is important for career building and promotion. Self-
discipline can motivate you and help achieve your goals.Motivation is an internal force to do and achieve
personal and organizational goals.
Needs, wants and motivation
Personal needs and wants drive to work towards achieving certain goals. In other words, Motives are linked
with personal needs or desires.
The Need Theory of Motivation
Personal needs and wants motivate people until these are satisfied. The need cycle shows the relationship
with work and achievement:
The need cycle repeats itself, making it difficult to every truly satisfy people.
Needs and Motivation
Work and personal life offer the opportunity to satisfy several needs and wants.
Achievement: Personal achievement of needs lead people to find joy and satisfaction.
Power: The need or want for power compel people to control resources including people and money.
Affiliation: People who value relations tend to be loyal to organizations and also with other people.
Recognition: People with a strong need for recognition wish to be acknowledged for their contribution
and efforts.
Discipline: People with a strong need for discipline and order have the urge to put things in order.
Risk Taking and Thrill Seeking: People with a strong need for risk taking and thrill seeking need exciting
events and stimulation.
There may be a multitude of other needs and wants that drive or motivate people to do different things or
Variation of Need
People have different needs based on their different values.
A value is the importance a person attaches to something that influences the personal action.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Maslow's hierarchy of needs show that people strive to satisfy the following needs in a sequential order:
(1) Physiological
(2) Safety
(3) Social
(4) Esteem
(5) Self-actualizing
A person is a perpetually wanting animal. The higher the level of need, the less likely it is to be satisfied.
People will make efforts to satisfy those needs which are important for the individual. The first step,
however, is the identification of a need or set of needs.
Goal Setting and Motivation
Success demands identifying goals. Almost all successful people set goals and write them down for personal
A goal is an event, circumstance, object or condition a person strives to achieve.
Goals are useful because they: (a) provide a consistent direction, (b) improve the chances for success and (c)
serve as self-motivators and energizers. Combined with self-efficacy, the contribution of goals is even more
Goals create a discrepancy between what exists and personal aspirations. Such a discrepancy leads to
dissatisfaction and turn into a drive or motive to eliminate the discrepancy. From a neurological perspective,
goals arouse the sympathetic nervous system to action. Overly demanding goals, however, may produce
over-arousal; the person becomes over-stimulated and may back away from achieving the set goal.
Goals may be of different types. It may involve learning or doing things or tasks. A learning-goal orientation
means that an individual is focused on acquiring new skills and mastering new situations.
A proving-goal orientation is aimed at wanting to demonstrate and validate the adequacy of one's
competence by seeking favorable judgments about one's competence.
People with a learning-goal orientation are more likely to seek feedback on how well they are performing.
Goal Setting on the Job
Goal setting is important in both profit and nonprofit firms, especially in technical, professional and
managerial jobs.
Executives set strategic goals. Workers at lower levels establish goals that support the top-level strategic
goals. An important part of goal setting, both on and off the job, is priority setting. If you want to lead a
rewarding personal life, you should have goals and plans to achieve them. Personal goals heavily influence
the formulation of career goals as well. Integrating personal and career goals creates balance and stability in
Types of personal goals
Personal goals can be divided into different groups:
Social and family, hobbies and interests, physical and mental health, financial, etc.
Guidelines for Goal Setting
An action plan is needed to achieve goals.
Specify Goals: Vague goals may delay action.
Concise Goals: Use a short, punchy statement.
Set Realistic Goals: A realistic goal represents the right amount of challenge for the person pursuing the
goal. The higher a person's self-efficacy, the more likely he or she may think that a goal is realistic.
Set Goals for Different Time Periods: Include daily, short-range, medium-range, and long-range goals.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Include Some Fantasy in Personal Goal Setting: Fantasy goals reflect a vision of the ideal type of life
one would like to lead. Such goals also facilitate relaxation.
Review Goals from Time to Time: Some goals lose their relevance and therefore must be changed.
Problems related with goals
A major problem related with goals is that goals can create inflexibility. They can contribute to a narrow focus,
thus neglecting other worthwhile activities.
Performance goals can sometimes detract from an interest in the task.
Another problem is that goals can interfere with relaxation.
Techniques of Self-Motivation
Identifying your most important needs could enhance motivation. Some other techniques are also important
to learn about.
Set goals for yourself: Goal setting is fundamental to motivation.
Find intrinsically motivating work: Intrinsic motivation refers to the natural tendency to seek out novelty
and challenges, to extend and use one's capabilities.
Get feedback on your performance: Feedback acts as a reward.
Apply behavior modification to yourself: In using behavior modification, remember that self-rewards
may be more effective than self-punishments in sustaining the right behavior.
Improve your skills relevant to your goals: According to the expectancy theory of motivation, people
need confidence in their skills to be motivated.
Raise your level of self-expectation: The Galatea effect is the technical term for improving performance
through raising one's expectations.
Develop a strong work ethic: If you are committed to the idea that most work is valuable and that it is
joyful to work hard, you will automatically become strongly motivated.
Self-discipline and motivation
Achieving goals and staying motivated requires self-discipline.
The ability to work systematically and progressively toward a goal until it is achieved. The components
of the self-discipline are as follows:
1. Formulate a mission statement related to your life.
2. Develop role models of self-disciplined achievers.
3. Develop goals for each task.
4. Develop action plans to achieve goals.
5. Use visual and sensory stimulation. Self-disciplined people form mental images of the act of
accomplishing what they want.
6. Search for pleasure within the task. A self-disciplined person finds joy, excitement, and intense
involvement in the task at hand (intrinsic motivation).
7. Compartmentalize spheres of life. Self-disciplined people have a remarkable capacity to divide up
(compartmentalize) the various spheres of life to stay focused on what they are doing at the moment.
8. Minimize excuse making. Self-disciplined people concentrate their energies on goal accomplishment
rather than making excuses for why work is not accomplished.
Dubrin, A.J. (2005). Human Relations for Career and Personal Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People