Human Relations

PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior

<< PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action >>
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 05
What is Group?
ˇ  Two or more individuals who interact with one another, share goals and norms and have a
subjective awareness as me, myself' we and "ourselves".
ˇ  The organizations are using the word team for the groups now a day. So a group/team is "two or
more people interacting to achieve an objective". This definition has three major components
Characteristics of Groups
The following statements are characteristics of the groups.
Its members share common goals.
They engage in frequent interaction.
They define themselves as members.
They are defined by others as belonging to the group.
They feel the group to be rewarding.
How groups help organizations
ˇ  Groups are good for people.
ˇ  Groups can improve creativity.
ˇ  Groups can make better decisions.
ˇ  Groups can increase commitments to action.
ˇ  Groups help control their members.
ˇ  Groups help offset large organization size.
Importance of Groups in Organizations
Global organizations continue to focus on teams.
ˇ  Groups are a major means of increasing productivity.
ˇ  The use of group decision making in organizations is emerging in importance. It has long been
recognized that team participation in decision making results in better decisions, with more
commitment to their implementations.
ˇ  Managers are evaluated on the result of their departments as a whole.
ˇ  It is common knowledge that groups are the backbone of the organizations because of the systems
effect in which each group/department is affected by at least one other group and each department
affects the performance of the total organization.
Why do People Join Group
ˇ  People join groups for a variety of reasons. Some group members are motivated by task concerns
and others are motivated by interpersonal attraction to other group members.
Group Synergy
Support and Commitment
Interpersonal Needs
Group Synergy
Group synergy refers to the idea that two heads (or more) are better than one. You may have also
heard the phrase,
"The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, which also refers to group synergy.
Simply, groups are often capable of producing higher quality work and better decisions can be
taken as compared to an individual working alone.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Support and Commitment
ˇ  A group may be more willing to take on a large project than would an individual. In addition to its
increased ability to do work, the group can provide encouragement and support to its members
while working on a big project.
Interpersonal Needs
Individuals often join a group to meet their interpersonal needs.
William Schutz has identified three such needs: inclusion, control, and affection.
Inclusion is the need to establish identity with others.
Control is the need to exercise leadership outlets for this need. Some individuals do not want to be
a leader. For them, groups provide the necessary control over aspects of their lives.
Affection is the need to develop relationships with people. Groups are an excellent way to make
friends and establish relationships.
Types of groups
ˇ  Groups form to accomplish some objective. The objective may be to complete some kind of task
or may be to promote the interpersonal relationships between the group members. Many groups,
however, fulfill both of these functions.
ˇ  Primary group
ˇ  Secondary group
ˇ  Reference group
ˇ  In-group
ˇ  Out-group
ˇ  Social Group
ˇ  Work Group
ˇ  Contrived or Emergent Groups
Primary groups
ˇ  Groups consisting of intimate, face-to-face interaction and relatively long-lasting relationships.
ˇ  Expressive needs intimacy, companionship and emotional support, provided by primary groups.
Secondary groups
ˇ  Groups with large membership, less intimate and less long lasting.
Reference groups
ˇ  Serve as a standard evaluating values, attitudes, and behaviors.
ˇ  An in-group is a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, usually due to
membership in the group. This loyalty often manifests itself as an ingroup bias. Commonly
encountered ingroups include family members, people of the same race or religion.
Out- group
ˇ  An out-group is a social group towards which an individual feels contempt, opposition, or a desire
to compete. Members of out-groups may be subject to out-group homogeneity biases, and
generally people tend to privilege ingroup members over out-group members in many situations.
Social Groups
ˇ  While all groups will have both social and task dimensions, some groups are predominantly social
in their orientation. Examples of these groups would be families and social clubs. These groups
provide for our safety and solidarity needs and they help us to develop self- esteem.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Work Groups
ˇ  Work groups function to complete a particular task. In a work group, the task dimension is
emphasized. The members pool their expertise to accomplish the task. Examples of this would be
workplaces, campus organizations, or juries.
Emergent Groups
ˇ  Some groups form spontaneously, such as a group of friends. Other groups are contrived, that is,
they are formed for a specific purpose. Organized clubs, social groups, or committees are contrived
Roles in Groups
ˇ  Every member of a group plays a certain role within that group.
ˇ  Some roles relate to the task aspect of the group, while others promote social interaction.
ˇ  A third set of roles are self-centered and can be destructive for the group.
Task-Oriented Roles
These are several roles which relate to the completion of the groups task:
ˇ  Initiator-contributor: Generates new ideas.
ˇ  Information-seeker: Asks for information about the task.
ˇ  Opinion-seeker: Asks for the input from the group about its values.
ˇ  Information-giver: Offers facts or generalization to the group.
ˇ  Opinion-giver: States his or her beliefs about a group issue.
ˇ  Elaborator Explains Ideas: within the group offers examples to clarify ideas.
ˇ  Coordinator: shows the relationships between ideas.
ˇ  Orienter: Shifts the direction of the groups discussion.
ˇ  Evaluator-critic: Measures group's actions against some objective standard.
ˇ  Energizer: Stimulates the group to a higher level of activity.
ˇ  Procedural technician: Performs logistical functions for the group.
ˇ  Recorder: Keeps a record of group actions.
Social Roles
Groups also have members who play certain social roles:
ˇ  Encourager: Praises the ideas of others.
ˇ  Harmonizer: Mediates differences between group members.
ˇ  Compromiser: Moves group to another position that is favored by all group members.
ˇ  Gatekeeper/expediter: Keeps communication channels open.
ˇ  Standard Setter: Suggests standards or criteria for the achievement.
ˇ  Group observer: Keeps records of group activities and uses this information to offer feedback to
the group.
ˇ  Follower: Goes along with the group and accepts the group's ideas.
Individualistic Roles
These roles place the group member above the group and are destructive to the group.
ˇ  Aggressor: Attacks other group members, deflates the status of others, and other aggressive
ˇ  Blocker: Resists movement by the group.
ˇ  Recognition seeker: Calls attention to himself or herself.
ˇ  Self-confessor Seeks to disclose non group related feelings opinions.
ˇ  Dominator: Asserts control over the group by manipulating the other group members.
ˇ  Help seek to gain the sympathy of the group.
ˇ  Special interest pleader: Uses stereotypes to assert his or her owns prejudices.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Individual and Group Behavior
ˇ  Effective management requires an understanding of some systematic elements of human behavior,
your own and that of others.
ˇ  Directing, motivating, and influencing people within and outside your organization are key aspects
of leadership.
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People