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PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play

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Journalistic Writing ­ MCM310
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LECTURE 21
PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES
TIME ORDER PARAGRAPHS
Example 1
My European Holiday
Last year I took a month-long trip to Europe. First, I went to London. I stayed there for two
weeks. I saw many historical places and went to several shows. After London, I flew to Paris, where I went
shopping and visited the Louvre. I stayed in Paris for a week. Then I went to Rome by train. In Rome I saw
the Colosseum, the Pantheon, and Vatican City. After a week in Rome, I flew home. It was an educational and
enjoyable trip.
STRUCTURE:
1. Topic sentence:
2. Body:
went to London
went to Paris
went to Rome
returned home
3. Conclusion
Example 2
Putting on Our Play
Last weekend we put on our annual drama club play. It was a great success, but it was also hard work.
We began planning two months ago. First, we selected the play. Next, a director was chosen. After that, we
began casting the play. The next step was to find people to design and make the costumes and sets. All this
while, we were rehearsing. Finally, two weeks ago, we held a dress rehearsal, and, at last, we felt we were ready
for opening night. Because of all our hard work and careful preparations, the play was a big hit.
Structural analysis:
Central idea:
Body:
Time words
what happened
First
selected the play
Next
director was chosen
After that
began casting the play
The next
found costume and set designers
All this while
rehearsing
Finally
dress rehearsal
At last
ready for opening night
Conclusion:
Time Order Paragraphs: Practice
Prepare a paragraph in which you tell the story pf a book you have read or a movie you have seen.
SPATIAL ORDER PARAGRAPHS: Used to describe spaces.
Example 1
A Comfortable Place
My favorite room is my living room. It's rectangular with the door on the left side of the south wall. In the wall
opposite the door is a picture window. Below the window is a sofa. A rectangular coffee table is in front of the
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sofa. Facing the sofa are two armchairs. An abstract painting is on the west wall. Along the east wall you will
see a long cabinet with a vase of flowers on it. To the right of the cabinet is a small table with a telephone on it.
This bright and uncluttered room is my favorite place to relax.
Location words:
Left and right; Front and back; Centre; East and West; North and South; Next to; Above; Below; Behind; In
front; Top etc.
Spatial Order Paragraphs: Practice
Picture in your mind a place that you know very well. Now write an outline of a paragraph describing that place
without drawing a diagram first.
MULTI-PARAGRAPH COMPOSITION:
Composed of more than one paragraph
Example 1
My Three Closest Friends
Like everyone else, I know all kinds of people and I'm friendly with most of them. Among all the people I've
gotten to know, I have several very close friends.
First I'll introduce you to my friend William. We've known one another since the first grade, when he moved
in next door and was put in my class. We share secrets and many activities, like playing baseball on the same
team. In William, I have a friend with whom I can relax and be myself.
Another important person to me is Janet. Janet is three years older than I, and I think of her as a big sister.
Janet and I used to ride the same bus to school, and sometimes she and I would sit together. In all the years
I've known her, Janet has given me much useful advice and encouragement, particularly about school. Janet is
one friend I know I can always depend on during good times and bad times.
The third person I think is special is Tom. Tom and I are taking a photography class now, and we spend at
least two evenings a week together. He's got a great eye for composition and a terrific sense of humor, and we
have a lot of fun. Tom's a great friend to have around when I'm feeling sad.
William, Janet, and Tom--each of them is important to me in a different way. I feel lucky to have such good
friends.
Structure:
Introduction
Central Idea
Body
First Paragraph
Central idea
Body
Conclusion
Second Paragraph
Central idea
Body
Conclusion
Third Paragraph
Central idea
Body
Conclusion
Conclusion
Central idea
CONTRASTIVE COMPOSITIONS:
Two Cities
Boston and San Francisco are two of the most visited American cities. Each has its own "personality"
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and character, which are often appreciated by people who live elsewhere.
Boston has the ethnic "flavor" typical of many cities in the East. This gives Boston the homey character
of a city of neighborhoods. One ethnic group whose presence is felt is the Irish, who have become important
in the politics of the city and state, of whom President John F. Kennedy is an example. The many universities
in and around the city make Boston a leading center for higher education. Boston is also a high-tech center,
with many white-collar workers in fields related to the computer industry. Its homey and high-tech sides
make Boston a diverse city.
San Francisco lies on the West Coast, a continent away from Boston. Like Boston, it has ethnic areas,
including the world-famous Chinatown. Unlike Boston, however, the city did not follow the typical pattern of
growing through a steady influx of immigrants. San Francisco grew dramatically as a result of being near the
gold fields, which were the goal of the famous gold rush of 1849. Yet many visitors feel San Francisco is a big
city that has kept a small-city feel. Some physical features help make San Francisco unique among American
cities. It is built on steep hills, which give many dramatic views. Another famous area of the city that provides a
lovely panorama is the wharf, where one can shop or dine on a wide variety of fish. A center of finance in the
western United States, San Francisco also boasts a rich cultural life. It was the birthplace of many avant-garde
movements, from the Beatniks of the 1950s and the Flower Children of the 1960s to the sexual liberation
movements of the 1970s and 1980s. San Francisco always seems to be ahead of its time.
These cities show the diversity of American urban areas. They prove the variety possible within and
between cities.
Structure:
·  Para 1: Topic sentence
·
Para 2 and 3: Comparison between Boston and San Francisco
·
Para 3: Conclusion
Contrastive Compositions: Practice
Now write a contrastive composition that shows the difference between any two people or things you would
like to compare.
CAUSE & EFFECT COMPOSITIONS:
Choosing My Career
My decision to become a nurse was based on several well-thought- out reasons. Some of my reasons
had to do with personal goals. Other reasons had to do with my view of society and where I want to fit into
society.
During my last year in high school, I had several long conversations with my parents about what to do
after I graduated. Through these talks, I was able to clarify my career goals. I wanted a job with good pay and
good status. These were not my only goals. I also wanted a job that would help people in a practical way, a job
that could make people's lives better.
Taking these reasons into consideration, I was able to narrow down my choices to two jobs. The first
was teaching. I have always liked children, and I like teaching people to do things. A teacher also makes a
decent living and gets a fair amount of respect if he or she does her job well. I would also be able to help
people as a teacher. The second choice was nursing. Nursing met all my criteria for a job. In addition, it is a job
I could continue to do periodically or part-time if I decided to have children. Finally, I decided on nursing
as a career since it offered me a good-paying, respected position with a lot of flexibility.
I'm now in my last year of nursing school, and I'm looking forward to starting my professional life. I
feel certain I made the right choice.
Cause & Effect Compositions: Structure
1. Introduction:
2. Body:
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Cause
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Effect
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
3. Conclusion
Cause & Effect Compositions: Practice
Now outline your cause and effect composition on one of the following themes.
The steps you took or will take in choosing a place to live
The steps you took or will take in choosing a place to work
The steps you took or will take in making any complicated decision
Source: Connor. Express Yourself in Written English. Illinois: NTC. 1990
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISTIC WRITING:Practical, THINGS TO KNOW
  2. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  3. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  4. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Achieve appropriate readability:
  5. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Be concise, Be creative, Be correct
  6. THE PROCESS OF WRITING:INVENTION, WHEN YOU START TO WRITE
  7. THE PROCESS OF WRITING II:ORGANIZING, DRAFTING, REVISING
  8. ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES
  9. DICTIONARY-A WRITER’S LANGUAGE TOOL:KINDS OF INFORMATION
  10. PARTS OF SPEECH:Noun Gender, Noun Plurals, Countable Nouns
  11. BASIC CLAUSE PATTERNS
  12. ACTIVE AND PASSSIVE VOICE
  13. MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES
  14. REPORTED SPEECH:Indirect Questions, Direct commands
  15. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES:SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
  16. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES II:SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
  17. EFFECTIVE SENTENCE:PARALLELISM, NEEDED WORDS, SHIFTS
  18. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS I:COLLOQUIAL VS FORMAL, CIRCUMLOCUTION
  19. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS II:AMBIGUITY, REDUNDANCY, EUPHEMISM:
  20. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:STRUCTURE
  21. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play
  22. ESSAY WRITING:VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS, PROMPTS
  23. SIGNAL WORDS:Non word Emphasis Signals
  24. EXPOSITORY WRITING:LOGICAL FALLACIES, APPEAL TO EMOTION
  25. THE WRITING STYLES: REPORT and NARRATIVE WRITING, SHORT REPORTS
  26. THE WRITING STYLES: DESCRIPTIVE AND PERSUASIVE WRITINGS, Observation
  27. RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations
  28. Summary and Précis Writing:CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SUMMARY
  29. Punctuation:THE PERIOD, THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, THE COLON
  30. MECHANICS:ABBREVIATIONS, NUMBERS, SPELLING, THE HYPHEN
  31. READING SKILLS FOR WRITERS:EDUCATED READING, STEPS
  32. PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:Box-out, By-line, Caption, Exclusive, Feature
  33. THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEWSPAPERS II:BROADSHEET NEWSPAPER
  34. News Writing and Style I:WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A NEWSPAPER
  35. NEWS WRITING II:Accuracy, Clarity, Style, Qualities of Effective Leads
  36. EDITORIAL WRITING:WRITING AN EDITORIAL:STRUCTURING AN EDITORIAL
  37. WRITING FEATURES:GENERATING FEATURE STORY IDEAS
  38. WRITING COLUMNS:Column and a news report, Purpose, Audience
  39. WRITING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS:The Heading, The Lead
  40. WRITING ANALYSIS:purpose, scope, method, results, recommendations
  41. LETTERS TO EDITORS:Four important aspects about letters, Organizing letters
  42. BROADCAST AND WEB NEWS WRITING:WRITE CONCISELY, BROADCAST STYLE
  43. WRITING PRESS RELEASE, REVIEWS AND OBITUARIES:Summary of Content:
  44. THE ART OF INTERVIEWINGS
  45. FINAL THOUGHTS:Practical, Job-Related, Social, Stimulating, Therapeutic