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NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT

<< OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 04
NEWS VALUES I
As we have come to know in the previous lesson that any event or opinion that people want to know, and is
reported in newspaper or is broadcast on radio as a part of a news bulletin, is a news. It is a matter of
common sense that every event can not mount to be reported and hence can not be called news. Likewise,
every statement or every opinion can not be declared or treated as news.
Let us have a look at some situations and see if they can be given some space in any newspaper or in a radio
or television news bulletin.
I give a statement about my friend that he is an irate kind of person, or I have a row (to exchange hot and
harsh sort of words with somebody) with my cousin on a point, or my brother goes for shopping and get
into a kind of argumentation while making a bargain with the salesman over the price of a pullover he
intends to buy, or one of my old buddies give me a ring on my mobile that very next day he may drop in on
my place.
All above-mentioned situations can never be called news unless I enjoy a considerable amount of
prominence in my country. Getting more simplified, let alone my being known to my countrymen, if I am
not known even to my city fellows I can just dream of being a focal point of any news item. Had I been an
important figure, in any way, on national or international level, I would have had a considerable space in
news.
In this lecture we will see what those factors are which make ordinary event news and add newsworthiness
to any happening, event, and any opinion or to any statement.
The following are those factors that can aptly be called news values:
1. CONFLICT
Conflict means a kind of clash, quarrel, disagreement, discard or battle between persons, groups, societies or
countries. It may be political, religious, ethnic or personal.
Most conflicts are newsworthy to some extent or degree. Important types of conflict are given below:
Physical Conflict:
Physical conflict is normally newsworthy because it usually leads to injury and damage. Since it involves
violence, where there such an incidence of conflict arises, people rush to it to know what has happened
actually. Physical conflict may be between two brothers over the division of inherited property, between a
shopkeeper and a buyer on bargain, between two landlords on water dispute, or between two business
partners over the question of profit.
Social Conflicts:
Social conflicts may not involve physical clash but there is a possibility of disagreement on certain issue
amongst different fractions of society. A violent mob getting wild and unruly may loot the shops, set the
buildings on fire, break the window-glass of showcases, ablaze the tires on important crossroads and may
jam the smooth flow of traffic. All these happenings provide a good stuff for a news bulletin.
Economic Conflicts:
Economic conflicts are between two business tycoons, between government and public and between two
countries; as well. For instance, there are certain economic sanctions imposed on any country resulting from
a clash on any issue between super power and a weaker country.
Religious Conflicts:
Religious conflict is an important conflict of immense news value. What history reveals is the fact that most
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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of the wars fought on earth were because of religion. It needs a great deal of magnanimity and big
heartedness to bear and tolerate other religion's existence. Failing to which leads humanity to a deadly riots,
clashes and sometimes wars.
Different factions and sects within a religion also provide grounds to horrible clashes between the people
constituting the same religion.
Ethnic riots in India are apt examples of religious conflicts. Riots between Hindus and Muslims, Hindus
and Christians, and Hindus and Sikhs are the incidents carrying strong and convincing news value and are
not only reported prominently in Indian media but also worldwide.
Conflict between Politicians:
In today's world of news, conflict between politicians is a major source of stuff for a news bulletin.
Politician is part and parcel of a democratic system and they are always seen at daggers drawn at one
another. One political party's political leader does not let any chance go unveiled to criticize the rival
political party or political leader. Their statements against each other are of great news value.
Conflict between States:
Conflict between states may be of different kinds. It may be just verbal or may be physical. Verbal conflicts
are because of certain unresolved vendetta and disputes between the countries. And if the bilateral relations
fail to achieve a position of normalization and the state-of-affairs gets more and more tensed and worse, a
moment arrives when war gets ignited between the countries. Getting into war does not demand countries
to share the border-line with each other or one another. Last century gifted world with an unending list of
reasons to wage a war against any nation, a wide range and choice of sophisticated weapons and intriguingly
subtle war ways and techniques that now any nation can declare war against any other nation on earth
provided it is more powerful than the other one.
War news are always read and listened to with great deal of keenness and curiosity.
Conflict between Man and Nature:
Floods, earthquakes, tsunami, famine, torrential series of rains, twisters, tornados, etc. are enough examples
of conflicts between man and nature. Radio for the coverage of such natural calamities can prove its worth
more than any other form of media.
2. PROGRESS
Progress means any improvement in any field. If the progress is really significant it will be a part of the news
bulletin.
Some leading walks of a society are as under in which if there is any remarkable progress; it will be noted by
the reporter.
Progress of a student
Outstanding performance in education or sports or in any co-curricular activity such as debates, speech
competition, poetry, essay competition, etc.
Progress of a political party
Any political party wins the polls or clean sweeps the elections.
Any Department
Progress in any project initiated by any government department may be good news.
Scientific device
Any change or innovation in any already existing invention or device also makes news, for instance,
progress in IT devices or equipments. The first computer could hardly fit into a big room but following
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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years' hard work done by the IT engineers not only brought about revolutionary and mind blowing
improvements in the machine but also shrank the size of the same machine to the extent that now it can
easily fit into one's pocket as well.
Medicine
Human and animal diseases are getting more and more complicated day by day and the growing state-of-
affair is offering difficult challenges to the medical scientists. Whenever there is any break through in the
on-going search for the antidotes of fatal diseases like AIDS and HEPATITUS, it becomes news.
Ongoing fight
If war has been erupted between the countries and there is a change in the situation, it is media's
responsibility to keep the people informed.
Progress in relations between countries
If a kind of tension and cold war is going on between two countries owing to certain grounds and
backgrounds and the attempts are being made to restore a state of normalization between them through
diplomacy or some other channel and resultantly there is a noteworthy progress in the process, it deserves
to be given a place in the news bulletin.
3-VICTORY AND DEFEAT
Conflict naturally paves way for the victory of one party and defeat of the other one. Whether the conflict is
between two hockey or cricket teams striving for a cup or trophy, or two armies combating in a battlefield
or two political parties contesting an election, one side's fate is victory and the other's is defeat. These two
ingredients of human society are teemed with healthy newsworthiness.
4-EMINENCE & PROMINENCE
It is agreed upon that names make news and the bigger the name, the larger the news. There is an aura of
news around prominent persons.
The inauguration of a beauty saloon by a renowned actress is news.
A statement issued by a social reformer about the pathetic condition of patients in government hospitals is
news.
A prominent actor's visit to a market is news.
An eminent squash player's appearance in a TV ad in future is news.
Any political leader's visit to a Kachchi Basti is news.
Rightly is said that even flu to an actress is news for media.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production