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NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES

<< NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES >>
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 06
NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS
12. CONSEQUENCE
Any event or statement of any important person in a society, capable enough to affect a larger number of
people in future, carries newsworthiness and must be given space in news bulletin. The incident, as a matter
of fact, at the time of its taking place, may not be that important but in future may acquire a great deal of
significance in terms of affecting people in one way or another.
Likewise, under the head of CONSEQUENCE, there may be a statement of any personality who enjoys the
authority and power of policy making in a state or society and he makes a policy statement that concerns
with the coming days of people.
For instance, if metrological office declares a dry weather for the whole year with nominal amount of rains,
it means that drought in region may be expected in future.
Every government, during its tenure, every year, announces budget for coming monetary and fiscal year in
which new taxes are imposed and some already existing taxes are rescheduled where as some commodities
and goods are declared tax free; some imports are declared free from customs duty where as on certain
imports custom duty is levied.
It is to be noted, all announcements regarding rise or fall in prices of different commodities and services
does not have any immediate affect on the lives of the people but it does after the date the decisions are put
into effect. It follows from this, the budget speech is important in terms of consequence.
The announcements of rise or fall in the prices of certain utilities, such as, petroleum products and
electricity, also come in such news stories.
13. MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
There are certain news stories which though do not posses any of the news values mentioned above but
still, find place in newspaper, radio, and TV bulletin. Such news stories, in any way, are news stories.
Migratory birds, flying from extreme cold regions to warm ones covering thousands and thousands of miles,
make news.
A dog saving his master from being robbed makes news.
Anniversaries of different people are covered as news. Birth and death anniversaries of Quaid-e- Azam
Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Allama Muhammad Iqbal are celebrated in reverence and respect therefore they
will be included in news bulletins.
Special days are covered as news
Observance of 14th August as Independence Day
23rd March as Pakistan Day
6th September as Pakistan Air Force Day
7th September as Pakistan Defense Day
1st May as Labor Day
5th January as Kashmir Solidarity Day
Besides above stated special days, 14th February as Valentine's Day, aid's day, father's day, mother's day, etc.
have also been started being observed in Pakistan and news stories covering these special days now become
a part of the news bulletins.
Conclusion ­ "News values are subjective."
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
ELEMENTS OF NEWS
While dealing with news, two stages we have covered so far. First, to see what we call news, what actually is
news? Second, to understand those features that convert an ordinary event or statement or opinion, into
news.
Now we go into details of news elements. News must carry following elements to come up to the ideal
standards of news.
1.
Accuracy
2.
Meaningful
3.
Interesting
4.
Factual
5.
Objectivity
6.
Conciseness
7.
Clarity
8.
Comprehensiveness
9.
Cohesiveness
Let us go into the details of each and every news element.
1. Accuracy
When we say `a news item must be accurate' we actually mean that whatever we are required to produce
as news, or whatever we are being given in the name of news to believe in, it must be correct in every
crumb of its details.
The names of people given in the news must be correct.
The names of the places given in the news must be accurate.
The ages of the people, if required to be given in the news, must be given with precision.
The days, dates and time of the incident or speech, or accident, being treated and reported as
news, must be accurate.
Language must be correct in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, structure, and grammar.
Statements of people must be accurate.
2. Meaningful
The news should be meaningful and must make any sense. It also implies that it must carry any one, or
some of them, or all of the news values we have gone through.
3. Interesting
The news story, especially to be broadcast on radio, must be written and presented in such a way that the
listener may not get bored. It is quite a difficult task to be managed when it comes to writing and presenting
news bulletin since news is something that can never drift away from the principals of accuracy and
objectivity. What we actually mean by making news bulletin interesting is the reading effect in the tone and
style must be avoided by the news caster and spoken language is to be employed while writing the lines of
any news item.
4. Factual
The news story must base on the incident or statement which has actually taken place. In this era of media,
where the choice available to the listener is wide and universal, news on one channel can easily and instantly
be verified on the other channels. The taking risk of putting on air something fabricated or concocted will
definitely bring bad repute to the channel doing it. Hence the most important element to be cared for and
taken into serious consideration while presenting news is its being factual and truthful.
5. Objectivity
Besides being accurate and factual, a news story needs to be to-the-point as well. Unnecessary details,
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
though may be a part of the incident, should be brushed aside.
Another thing that is important to be considered while making the element of objectivity certain in a news
story is that it must not be given personal touch or flavour. Even a slight impression of personal emotions
or any kind of exaggeration may endanger the objectivity of the bulletin.
6. Conciseness
When it is said, a news story must be concise, it means, it should not be unnecessarily lengthy. Where unnecessary
details are to be avoided, unnecessary wording must also be pruned out. Verbosity always kills the purpose
and this is brevity that is unanimously agreed upon to be the soul of wit.
Wordy expressions and unnecessary repetition must be avoided. Your duty is to inform people about an
event; you are not supposed to make them understand a thick and problematic matter of psychology or the
reasons why crimes are getting rampant in our society. These may well be the topics of an article or feature
but can not be touched upon in a news bulletin.
One-word substitution saves the space and time, both.
7. Clarity
The main objective of news is to keep the listeners in picture of what is happening around them and in the
world. And the purpose is achieved only if clarity is there clarity.
Simplified vocabulary, easy-on-tongue order of the words, and correct and clear pronunciation are the key
factors employing which the goal of making news clear and understandable may well be achieved.
8. Comprehensiveness
If something is comprehensive it means that it is complete by all regards and aspects. A news item is
considered comprehensive only when it answers the every possible question that may arise in the minds of
listeners. As a general principal to make a news story comprehensive and complete ­ five Ws and one H are
to be satisfied. They actually stand for: what, when, where, why, who and how.
What happened?
When happened?
Where happened?
Why happened?
Who did it? and
How did it happen?
Sometimes in certain stories it also becomes necessary to answer another W, and that is who for.
For instance, in vicarious crimes (crimes which are performed by an agent on behalf of some other person
or persons), it becomes necessary to give the person's name as well who the agent did a certain crime for.
First, to make a news item comprehensive, and then, the whole news bulletin, is a must. A news bulletin
must also consist of all the possible news items of all those happenings which have taken place just prior to
the moment the news bulletin goes on air.
Sometimes, however, it happens that an important news lands in newsroom immediate after the time the
bulletin has started. In such case, an attempt must be made to pen down the story at the moment and be
handed to the newscaster so that in this era of neck-to-neck competition the channel may not lag behind its
competitors.
9. Cohesiveness
The last but not the least one is the element of cohesiveness. When we talk of an order, a kind of symmetry;
a well-knit, well-planned, well-organized and even end-product, we actually talk of cohesiveness.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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It means that the order of the details to be put in a news item must be in proper order. Symmetry suggests
beauty and it must be self-evident in the construction of the news story. Asymmetry mars the beauty and
the listener does not go on with the bulletin smoothly and comfortably. It must not be jumpy and uneven.
To be more precise, a news item, and then the bulletin, must be well-knit, well arranged and well-ordered.
Difference between New Values & Elements of News:
News Value
We have come across different definitions of news and have been successful in drawing some
common factors which every definition, by and large, shares with the other one. The common features we
have drawn out of different news definitions are the news values. These are the values which lend
newsworthiness to a common incident, event, statement, or opinion. This is the first stage to evaluate an
incident against the yardstick of the news values.
News Elements
Once it is decided that this particular event deserves to be treated as a news item, the next stage is
to pen it down for a news bulletin or a newspaper. Now comes forth the expertise and the skill needed to
write, arrange and style the event, which has already been declared as a news item. The expertise which a
news writer employs while penning down the news story are called News Elements.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production