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History and Systems of Psychology

NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 35
NEO-FREUDIANS
Karen Horney
She was an American psychoanalyst and is classified as a Neo-Freudian. Horney was a pioneering theorist in
personality, psychoanalysis, and feminine psychology.
Karen Horney offered a list of ten neurotic needs which are:
1. Need for approval
2. Need for domination
3. Confine life
4. Independence
5. Perfection
6. Power
7. Exploiting others
8. Prestige
9. Ambition
10. Admiration
These needs lead to neurotic trends.
Neurotic trends appear as three kinds in social dealing:
i. Movement towards
Some children who feel a great deal of anxiety and helplessness move toward people in order to seek help
and acceptance. They are striving to feel worthy and can believe the only way to gain this, through the
acceptance of others. These people have an intense need to be liked, involved, to be important, and
appreciated. So they will often fall in love quickly or feel an artificial but very strong attachment to people,
even they may not know well. Their attempts to make that person love them create a clinginess and
neediness and it often results in the other person leaving the relationship.
ii. Movement away
The final possible consequence of a neurotic household is a personality style filled with a social behaviour
and an almost indifferent to others. If they don't get involved with others, they can't be injured by them.
While it protects them from emotional pain of relationships, it also keeps away all positive aspects of
relationships. It leaves them feeling alone and empty.
iii. Movement against
Another way to deal with insecurities and anxiety is to try to force your power onto others in hopes of
feeling good about yourself. Those with this personality style come across as bossy, demanding, selfish, and
even cruel. Once again, relationships appear doomed from the beginning.
The idealized image of the self is an attempt by a person to integrate his personality. Horney distinguishes
between situational neurosis and character neurosis. Her method of treatment was to discover the neurotic
needs, the movement away, movement towards, and movement against plus bring it to the attention of the
person.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Erich Fromm
Erich Fromm is another psychoanalyst who was trained in classical Freudian mode but later developed his
own theory and system. Born in 1900 and died in 1980, he worked and practiced in Chicago and New York,
U.S.A. In his famous book "Escape from Freedom" written in 1941 he proclaimed his break from Freud
and classical psychoanalysis.
Fromm asserted in the book that man has become free, but he longs to become dependent, and longs to
belong; this is man's dilemma. It means that although man has become free, he has experienced freedom
from the terms/requisites of the society, yet the internal desire to be affiliated with someone still exists. In
other words, man wants to be related to a group which becomes his identity. This forms the basis of a
society. Further, this craving to belong may also be to have affection from someone.
Fromm said that this need for freedom and dependence creates orientations. Orientations are relatively
prominent forms in which we spend our energy. He identified five orientations:
i. Receptive orientation
Receptive orientation is represented in a submissive and meek attitude. This means that man tends to accept
what is being enforced upon him in order to satisfy his desire to belong to someone or some group.
ii. Exploitative orientation
Exploitative orientation means to be aggressive and using others for own purposes. This orientation entails
that a person makes use of others for achieving his personal motives, which may not be in other person's
interest.
iii. Hoarding orientation
Hoarding orientation is represented in distrust for others and rigidity shown by a person. In other words, a
person who feels that he cannot trust others tends to keep everything with himself. He also becomes rigid
in his approach not letting anything change his dispositions.
iv. Marketing orientation
Marketing orientation is represented when the person adopts socially approved ways of behaviour and
dealing with others and sells himself. In other words the person behaves in a manner which is liked by
others. Therefore, he markets himself in front of others.
v. Productive Orientation
Productive orientation is the healthy way of life. This is the way of life where the individual realizes his full
potential.
The first four are neurotic orientations. In later life Fromm became more of a social philosopher than a
psychoanalyst and wrote and delivered lectures on his view of psychology and society.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology