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History and Systems of Psychology

NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie

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NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer >>
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 20
NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS
Neo-Behaviourists are psychologists who adopted the line of thinking and methodology of Watson,
but were born or worked after Watson. Watsonian behaviourism gave a new direction to the science of
psychology. The old method of introspection and speculation as a means of information for psychology was
rejected and a more scientific outlook was adopted. Only concrete facts were considered which were
observable. Therefore, behaviourism became very much as the heart of psychological thought. Neo-
behaviourists followed the Watsonian line of thinking although they were born after Watson.
Clark Hull
The first neo-behaviourist was Clark Hull who was born in 1884 and died in 1952. He was an
engineer and a mathematician but later turned into a psychologist. He taught at the University of Wisconsin.
Hull attended Koffka's lecture on Gestalt psychology at Wisconsin University and was impressed with the
Gestalt School. He had also read Pavlov's English translation of "Conditioned Reflexes," and liked it very
much. His explanation of human behaviour therefore reflects both the Gestalt and the Pavlovian points of
view.
Since Clark Hull was basically a mathematician, he aimed at expressing his views in mathematical
terms very precisely. He gave a mathematical equation which explained his view point. The equation is as
follows:
SER=
D x V x K x SHR
Where:
SER,
is behaviour
D, is drive, our need within
V, is Valence or stimulus intensity
K, is incentive, motivation
SHR
is habit
Therefore, according to Hull, behaviour is dependent upon drive, valance, incentive and habit.
Since Hull was a behaviourist he tried to simplify behaviour and according to him, as a person acts in a
certain manner or behaves in a certain manner, the driving forces behind it are D, V, K and SHR. Drive
according to Hull is the need inside a person. A person may want to achieve a certain goal, reach a target or
perhaps want to have some possession for him. All these things constitute the drive inside the person are
expressed as D in Hull's equation.
V is the intensity of the stimulus that governs certain behaviour. In other words, it is how strongly
the stimulus is registered by the sense organs of the body.
K is the incentive or the motivation. It is the target or the reward that the individual or the subject
aims at. It serves as the incentive for the subject to behave in a certain manner which would allow him to
reach the reward.
The last component of Hull's equation of behaviour is SHR, which is the habit that a person
develops. Behaviourists had given the explanations for why habits are developed. Hull carried forward their
ideas and said that habits also serve in determining how a person behaves.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
In simple terms behaviour is the result of many factors that include D: drive, V: attraction or
repulsion, K: motivation and habit. As it can be seen, his theory rests mainly on looking at performance, on
observing overall overt behaviour and that is why he is classified as a behaviourist.
Edward Tolman
Edward Tolman was another American, who was born in 1886 and died in 1961. He studied at
Harvard and was impressed by William James and Watson. Tolman believed that psychology is a science of
behaviour and psychologists should concentrate on the study of behaviour only and in addition to it he said
that behaviour has a "purpose." That is why he is also called a "purposive behaviourist."
He defined behaviour in a precise equation that is:
B= f (S, A)
Where:
B is behaviour
f is the function of
S is situation variables
A is antecedent variables
This means that behaviour is a function of situational variables and antecedent variables.
A situational variable is any variable that is a part of the situation/environment that affects a subject's
behaviour in a way, for example the hot or cold weather.
An antecedent variable is a variable that is a part of the subject such as age, gender etc. and it impacts its
behaviour. Therefore, his explanation of behaviour was very precise. Because of his theory of explanation of
behaviour, Tolman is classified as a neo-behaviourist.
Edwin Gutherie
Edwin Gutherie was also a prominent neo-behaviourist who was born in 1886 and died in 1960.
Unlike his contemporary psychologists, Gutherie was less an experimentalist and more an observer.
Based upon his observations, he put forward the view that behaviour can be predicted and controlled by the
"law of recency," given by Thorndike, which states that "the last act is most likely to be repeated."
Therefore, behaviourism to Gutherie is repetition of the "last act." Thorndike proposed his law of recency
based on experiments that he conducted on cats. Therefore, the basis of Gutherie's thoughts resides in
experimentalism.
Gutherie had also read Freud and was impressed by his method of treatment of mental disorders.
Based upon his behaviourist outlook, Gutherie developed a theory of neurosis in his book "The Psychology
of Human Conflict" and because of this he may be regarded as one of the first behaviourist
psychotherapists. He explained neurosis to be caused due to conflict of responses.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology