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History and Systems of Psychology

NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer

<< NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure >>
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 21
NEO-BEHAVIORISTS
B.F. Skinner
One of the most prominent psychologists, who was impressed by Watsonian behaviourism on the
one hand and Pavlovian conditioning on the other was another American B.F. Skinner, born in the year
1904 and died in 1990. He worked at Harvard University and carried on his experiments on animals, writing
many books and articles. His main research work is now known by the title of Instrumental or Operant
Conditioning.
Working on white rats and pigeons, in specially devised cages, known as Skinner boxes he observed
how animals learn. He therefore adopted an experimental method of learning. He also purported the idea of
learning by conditioning but his conditioning was different from that of Pavlov. Later Pavlov's conditioning
came to be known as classical conditioning while Skinner's conditioning was called instrumental or operant
conditioning.
One of the contributions of B.F. Skinner is that he distinguished between positive reinforcement
and negative reinforcement, where positive reinforcement is when a response is positively rewarded and
negative reinforcement is when a response is negatively rewarded or punished. In other words, if a subject,
who is hungry, is rewarded on its act with food, the reinforcement is positive. On the other hand, if a
subject is punished on his or her act but being beaten up or being subjected to some kind of torture, or
even a less sever punishment such as denial of food, the reinforcement given to him according to Skinner is
negative reinforcement.
According to Skinner, learning takes place by four schedules of reinforcement:
i.  Fixed ratio schedule
ii. Variable ratio schedule
iii. Fixed interval schedule
iv. Variable interval schedule
Reinforcement is given to the subjects according to these scales. Fixed ratio is, when reinforcement
is given after a fixed number of responses. Variable ratio is when reinforcement is given after variable
number of responses. Fixed interval is reinforcement is given after a fixed time period. Variable interval is
when reinforcement is given after a variable time interval.
Based upon his experiments he proposed in his famous book: "Beyond Freedom and Dignity" that
change in whole society is necessary for the betterment.
Karl Lashley
An important contributor to the behaviourist school is Karl Lashley, born in 1890 and died in 1958.
He was a pupil of Watson. Adopting from Watson, he proposed that psychology is a science of behaviour
and behaviour is the result of activity of the cerebral cortex, a part of the brain. This is one of his greatest
contributions in psychology which lead to the development of two principles given by Lashley himself.
i.
Principle of equi-potentiality:
According to Lashley, one part of the cortex is the same as another part. Therefore, even if one
part is cut off, the brain activity still takes place. In other words, both parts of the cortex have
equal potential to make the brain work properly.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
ii. Principle of mass action:
He also proposed that the more the cortex in mass, the better the learning and called it the
"principle of mass action." So Lashley showed that behaviour and more precisely learning is a
function of the activity of the cortex.
Donald Hebb
Donald Hebb was a Canadian psychologist, who showed that, when a part of the human brain was
removed accidentally, it did not affect a person's IQ. It is similar to Lashley's principle of equi-potentiality
which stated that if one part of the cortex is removed, the brain continues to function as with the full
cortex.
Harvey Harlow
Another psychologist Harvey Harlow, of University of Wisconsin showed that curiosity,
exploration and manipulation effect animal learning. This meant that if a subject is curious about certain
phenomenon, it would have a different learning pattern as compared to other subjects. Further, exploration
and manipulation also affect learning.
Hobart Mowrer
Hobart Mowrer at the University of Illinois showed that factors such as hope and disappointment
influence learning.
Behaviourism slowly had introduced such mentalistic concepts as curiosity, hope, disappointment,
etc. So behaviourism slowly moved away from dealing with purely observational data and started looking
into psychological factors.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology