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MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior

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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Lesson 07
MOTIVATION IN SPORT
Motivation is basically something that energizes, direct, and sustains behaviors. There are two kinds of
motivation in sports i.e. intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, but at the fundamental core,
intrinsic motivation is little more than taking part in an interesting activity simply because of love for
the activity or the game. Intrinsic motivation is basically the internal desire of the players to perform a
particular task, to do certain activities because it gives them pleasure, develops a particular skill, or it's
morally the right thing to do. Whereas extrinsic motivation are the motivational factors external to the
individual and unrelated to the task they are performing or in other words extrinsic motivation refers to
motivation that comes from an external as opposed to an internal source. Examples include money, and
other rewards. Intrinsically motivated players are bound to do much better in their fields, because they
are willing and eager to learn new stuff. Their learning experience is more meaningful.
Integrated Theory of Motivation
The integrated theory of motivation includes the notions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The
theory is based upon the centerpiece of self-determination. Self-determination is the unifying
psychological construct that brings meaning to the overall concept of motivation.
Social factors and psychological mediator are seen as determinants of motivation that lead to certain
consequences.
Social Factors
Social factors facilitate or cause feelings of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. The specific social
identified in the model include experiences of success and failure, experiences with competition and
cooperation, and coaches' behaviors.
Success and Failure
As athletes participate in a sport they have many opportunities to experience i.e. to say they may have to
face failure or negative feedback or success or positive feedback. Successful experiences on one hand
leads to the belief that one is competent and efficacious relative to skills being learned and performed.
Whereas, failure feedback on the other hand leads to a reduction in the belief that one is competent and
efficacious.
Competition and Cooperation
Achievement situations tend to focus upon either competition or cooperation. Putting the emphasis
upon defeating the opponent is an ego or competitive goal orientation that is associated with a loss in
intrinsic motivation. Also, consistent with self determination theory is the observation that competition
reduces feelings of autonomy, as the focus is external and not internal. Just as competition relates to an
ego goal orientation, cooperation relates to a task or mastery goal orientation.
Coaches' Behavior
The third social factor that can influence an athletes' perception of competence, autonomy and
relatedness is the Coaches' behavior. The coach could insists on being in complete control and
determining, even down to the last detail, exactly what transpires on the playing field or practice field.
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Or the coach be more democratic in nature and is willing to share the perception of control with athletes.
The controlling coach risks destroying the intrinsic motivation of the athlete for the sake of personal control or
even perhaps more wins.
Psychological Mediators
There are three psychological mediators which determine motivation, they are:
1.
Competence
Self determination theory values competence as a prerequisite for motivation, but by itself it is not a sufficient
condition for its development. It is clear that competence (self confidence) is critical to the development of
intrinsic motivation, but without autonomy you do not have self determination, and without self determination
you do not have intrinsic motivation. Competence without autonomy gives rise to the efficacious pawn. In the
efficacious pawn you have an individual who is confident that he can successfully perform a task, but who is
doing it for an external reason. When the external reason is removed, he will no longer be motivated to perform
the task, although he may do it without enthusiasm or real motivation.
2.
Autonomy
The concept of autonomy is central to self determination theory. You cannot exhibit self-determination without
autonomy. According to self-determination theory, every individual has the basic innate need to be an "origin"
and not a "pawn"
3.
Relatedness
The third innate psychological need is the need for relatedness. Relatedness is necessary for a person to be self
actualized, or to realize his full potential as an athlete and as a human being. Relatedness has to do with the basic
need to relate to other people, to care for others and have others care for you. As all human beings are social
animals and for that they have to interact with other people similarly it is very interesting seeing athletes
supporting each other on the playing field. To a large extent, an athletes' enjoyment in sport is associated with
how she relates to other athletes on her team, as well as to the coaches and support personnel.
Levels of Motivation
Level of motivation depends on seven factors, and they are:
1.
Amotivation
The least self-deterministic kind of motivation is no motivation at all. This is referred to as amotivation.
Amotivation refers to behaviors that are neither internally nor externally based. For example, an amotivated
athlete might say that he is not sure why he plays a particular sport, and he does not see any benefits related to
the sport. It is the relative absence of motivation.
2.
Intrinsic Motivation
The kind of motivation that exhibits that highest level of self-determinism is referred to as being intrinsic or
internal in nature. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from within. Intrinsic motivation is believed to
be multidimensional. The three aspects or manifestations of intrinsic motivation are towards knowledge,
towards accomplishment, and towards experiencing stimulation.
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Intrinsic motivation towards knowledge reflects an athlete's desire to learn new skills and ways of
accomplishing a task. Intrinsic motivation towards accomplishing reflects an athlete's desire to gain
mastery over a particular skill and the pleasure that comes from reaching a personal goal for mastery.
And similarly intrinsic motivation towards experiencing stimulation reflects the feeling that an athlete
gets from physically experiencing a sensation innate to a specific task.
3. Extrinsic Motivation
By definition, extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from an external as opposed to an
internal source. Extrinsic motivation comes in many forms, but common examples include awards,
trophies, money, praises, social approval, and fear of punishment.
4. External regulation
A behavior that is performed only to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment is said to be
externally regulated. For example, an externally regulated runner takes part in a 10-kilometer race
because of the promise of a trophy and a cash reward. . Now this behavior leads to self determination
and the perception of being in personal control. The athlete in this example is pawn in terms of
exercising personal control of their behavior.
5. Introjected regulation
Extrinsic motivation that has undergone introjected regulation is only partially internalized. For
example the degree to which an athlete feels that he practices daily to please his coach, as opposed to
practicing to become a better player because he wants to become a better player.
6. Identified regulation
When an athlete comes to identify with an extrinsic motivation to the degree that it is perceived as
being her own, it is referred to as being an identified regulation. Identified regulation is present when an
athlete engages in an activity that he does not perceive as being particularly interesting, but he does so
because he sees the activity as being instrumental for him to obtain another goal that is interesting to
him.
7. Integrated regulation
The most internalized form of regulation is referred to as integrated regulation. When regulation
mechanisms are well integrated, they become personally valued and freely done. At this level, a behavior
previously considered to be externally controlling becomes fully assimilated and internally controlled.
For example, an athlete will perceive his coach's controlling behavior as being completely consistent
with his own aspirations and goals and no longer perceives them as being externally controlling.
Consequences of Motivation
High levels of intrinsic motivation and internalized extrinsic motivation should lead to positive affect,
positive behavioral outcomes, and improved cognition. Research shows that athletes who engage in
sport for self-determined reasons experience more positive and less negative affect, have greater
persistence, and exhibit higher levels of sportspersonship.
Researches which support the integrated model include:
Pelletier et al.(1995) report
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Sport Psychology (PSY407)
Markland (1999) report.
Kowal and Fortier (2000) report
Ferre-Caja and Weiss (2000) report
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Cognitive evaluation theory is a sub theory to the integrated theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Cognitive evaluation theory puts forward the view that extrinsic motivation has the potential of diminishing an
individual's intrinsic motivation. That is, rewards can either add to or detract intrinsic motivation. There are two
components of the theory. The controlling aspect of the theory predicts that intrinsic motivation will be reduced
if extrinsic motivation is perceived as being controlling. The other component, informational aspect, predicts
that extrinsic motivation will actually enhance intrinsic motivation if an external reward is perceived as being
suggestive of personal competence.
Research support for cognitive evaluation theory is strong as evidenced by a recent meta-analysis and other
investigations. Research on attribution theory indicates that external rewards can damage a young athlete's
intrinsic desire to compete. The multiplicative principle suggests that his interaction between intrinsic and
extrinsic rewards could either add to or detract from intrinsic motivation.
References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York: McGraw-
Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants