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Journalistic Writing

MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES

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JournalisticWriting ­ MCM310
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LECTURE 13
MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES
Modifiersare the parts that modify, or describe the kernel (kernel means the basic clause). Thesewords
can be thought of as decorations because they elaborate on
the essential parts of the clause.
Types of Modifiers:
1. Adjectives
2. Adverbs
3. Appositives
4. Prepositional phrases
ADJECTIVEMODIFIERS: They modify the meaning of a noun or pronoun by providing information to
give it a more specificmeaning
Forexample, all the bold wordsare adjectives
1. This is an aggressiveteam. / The team is aggressive.
2. She has a terrificattitude. / Her attitude is terrific.
3. It is a beautiful sculpture. / The sculpture is beautiful.
Do this Exercise: Identify the adjectives.
1. I was struck by the dramaticcontrast between her sunburnarms and pale white face.
(Solution:dramatic, sunburn, pale, whiteare adjectives.)
Nowyou do it yourself.
2. The tallest man in the groupserved old-fashioned blackberry pie to the ladies.
3. Hot buttered popcorn wassold from a rickety redwagon.
4. A roll of sticky, twisted transparenttape sat on the dustywindowsill.
5. The discussion group took up the subject of damaged relationships andpossible ways to healthem.
6. The fizzled fireworks sent the disappointed crowd home before 10'oclock.
ADVREBMODIFIERS: They modify verbs or give moremeanings to verbs. They canappear almost
anywhere in a sentence. All the boldtypes are adverb modifiers.
1. The sucked their thumbsloudly. Adverb of manner)
2. I tiptoed quietlyinto the corridor. (adverb of manner)
3. Eventually we learned the truth. (adverb of time)
4. The doctor laterspoke to the press. (adverb of time)
5. She spends too much time there. (adverb of place)
6. The secretary delivered the packageherein the early evening. (adverb of place)
7. She neversmokes in public. (adverb of frequency)
APPOSITIVEMODIFIERS: Theyare noun phrases thatfollow and describe othernouns. All the bold
typesare appositive adverbs.
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JournalisticWriting ­ MCM310
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1. George Washington, thefirst president of theUnited States, loved peanut soup.
2. Andrew Johnson, a skilled tailor, mademost of his ownclothes.
3. The child, intelligent and strong, took after her parents.
4. The woman, cautiously at first, planted the seeds under a thin layer of reddish dirt.
PREPOSITIONALMODIFIERS: They are direction or relationship words. All the boldtypes are
prepositional modifiers.
1. The boy dialed 911 in a panic.
2. The man wrote hisnovel at a seaside hotel.
3. My mother graduated fromthe law school in May.
SENTENCETYPES: Sentencesare classified as
1. SIMPLE
2. COMPOUND
3. COMPLEX
4. COMPPOUND-COMPLEX
SIMPLE:one independent clause only.
E.g.Without music, life would be a mistake.
1. Bob went to the store.
2. Bob and Sue went to the store.
3. Bob and Sue went to the store on the corner near the center of town to buy groceries and to get some
drinksfor the party.
(This last sentence is quite a long one but is still a simple sentence, as there is only one clause. (S + V))
COMPOUNDSENTENCES: two or more independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunction:"and,"
"but,""or," "so," "yet," and"for."
E.g.one arrow is easily broken,butyoucan't break a bundle of ten.
Two independent clauses joined by and.
More examples:
Bob went to the store, and Sue went to the office.
Conjunction
The negotiations were successful, so the diplomats returned to their homes.
Conjunction
We can go to party, or we can go to the dance.
Conjunction
The negotiations ended successfully; therefore, the fighting stopped.
Conjunction
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JournalisticWriting ­ MCM310
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COMPLEXSENTENCES: one independent with one or more subordinate clauses joined by a subordinator.
E.g.If youscatter thorns, don't go barefoot.
One subordinating clause is beginning with a subordinator `if' and joinedwith one independent clause.
Because
the problem proved difficult, they decided to from a committee.
Subordinator
sentence
sentence
The proposal [that] we wrote wasaccepted.
Subordinator
Theissue, whichwe thought we had solved, cameback to haunt us.
Subordinator
Importantsubordinators to make complex sentences:
·
Time:when, while, since, before, after, until,once
·
Place:where,wherever
·
Cause:because,since, as, now that, inasmuch as
·
Condition:if,unless, on conditionthat
·
Contrast/Concession: although, even though, despite, in spite of
·
Adversative:while, where, whereas
·
Other: that, which, who, whoever, whom, what, why, how....
COMPPOUND-COMPLEX:at least two independent clausesand at least one subordinating clause. e.g. Tell
me whatyoueat, and I willtell you whatyouare.
The proposal thatwe wrote was accepted,and we started the project.
Subordinator
Conjunction
SENTENCEPURPOSE:
DECLARATIVE:to make statements.
IMPERATIVE:to issue requests or commands.
INTEROGATIVE:to ask questions.
EXCLAMATORY:to make exclamations.
See if you can tell the sentencepurpose in the followings:
Loveyour neighbor.
I want to wash the flag, not burn it!
Theecho always has the lastword.
Aresecond thoughts alwayswisest?
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO JOURNALISTIC WRITING:Practical, THINGS TO KNOW
  2. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  3. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITERS
  4. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Achieve appropriate readability:
  5. QUALITIES OF GOOD WRITING:Be concise, Be creative, Be correct
  6. THE PROCESS OF WRITING:INVENTION, WHEN YOU START TO WRITE
  7. THE PROCESS OF WRITING II:ORGANIZING, DRAFTING, REVISING
  8. ALL ABOUT WORDS:HOW WORDS ARE FORMED?:SUFFIXES
  9. DICTIONARY-A WRITER’S LANGUAGE TOOL:KINDS OF INFORMATION
  10. PARTS OF SPEECH:Noun Gender, Noun Plurals, Countable Nouns
  11. BASIC CLAUSE PATTERNS
  12. ACTIVE AND PASSSIVE VOICE
  13. MODIFIERS AND SENTENCE TYPES:COMPOUND SENTENCES
  14. REPORTED SPEECH:Indirect Questions, Direct commands
  15. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES:SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
  16. GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE – ISSUES II:SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
  17. EFFECTIVE SENTENCE:PARALLELISM, NEEDED WORDS, SHIFTS
  18. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS I:COLLOQUIAL VS FORMAL, CIRCUMLOCUTION
  19. STYLE: GUIDELINE AND PITFALLS II:AMBIGUITY, REDUNDANCY, EUPHEMISM:
  20. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:STRUCTURE
  21. PARAGRAPH WRITING: TYPES AND TECHNIQUES:Putting on Our Play
  22. ESSAY WRITING:VARIOUS STRATEGIES FOR ESSAYS, PROMPTS
  23. SIGNAL WORDS:Non word Emphasis Signals
  24. EXPOSITORY WRITING:LOGICAL FALLACIES, APPEAL TO EMOTION
  25. THE WRITING STYLES: REPORT and NARRATIVE WRITING, SHORT REPORTS
  26. THE WRITING STYLES: DESCRIPTIVE AND PERSUASIVE WRITINGS, Observation
  27. RESEARCH WRITING AND DOCUMNETING SOURCES:Handling Long Quotations
  28. Summary and Précis Writing:CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SUMMARY
  29. Punctuation:THE PERIOD, THE COMMA, THE SEMICOLON, THE COLON
  30. MECHANICS:ABBREVIATIONS, NUMBERS, SPELLING, THE HYPHEN
  31. READING SKILLS FOR WRITERS:EDUCATED READING, STEPS
  32. PARTS OF A NEWSPAPER:Box-out, By-line, Caption, Exclusive, Feature
  33. THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEWSPAPERS II:BROADSHEET NEWSPAPER
  34. News Writing and Style I:WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A NEWSPAPER
  35. NEWS WRITING II:Accuracy, Clarity, Style, Qualities of Effective Leads
  36. EDITORIAL WRITING:WRITING AN EDITORIAL:STRUCTURING AN EDITORIAL
  37. WRITING FEATURES:GENERATING FEATURE STORY IDEAS
  38. WRITING COLUMNS:Column and a news report, Purpose, Audience
  39. WRITING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS:The Heading, The Lead
  40. WRITING ANALYSIS:purpose, scope, method, results, recommendations
  41. LETTERS TO EDITORS:Four important aspects about letters, Organizing letters
  42. BROADCAST AND WEB NEWS WRITING:WRITE CONCISELY, BROADCAST STYLE
  43. WRITING PRESS RELEASE, REVIEWS AND OBITUARIES:Summary of Content:
  44. THE ART OF INTERVIEWINGS
  45. FINAL THOUGHTS:Practical, Job-Related, Social, Stimulating, Therapeutic