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TV News Reporting and Production

MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS:Live Sound Effects, ARROW STRIKING

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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
LESSON 15
MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS
Animations
Graphics
Windows
Brackets
Effects
Zoom out
Zoom in
Page turn over
Dip to black
Fade in
Fade out
Dissolve
Cross fade
Wipe
Swap
Colour tone
Title
End credits
Break
Bumpers
Scroll
Strips
Superimpositions
Names
Callers
Phone number
Email
Website
Promo
Recap
Music
Fore ground
Mid ground
Background
Choice of music
Sound leveling
Mixing and Uses of effects is to beautify a production. It fills the colours in the programme with the use
of animations, graphics, windows, brackets and effects like, Zoom out, Zoom in, Page turn over, Dip to
black, Fade in, Fade out, Dissolve, Cross fade, Wipe, Swap. Moreover Colour tone, Title, End credits,
Breaks, Bumpers, Scroll, Strips and Superimpositions like Names, Callers, Phone numbers, Email,
Website is also done by mixing, as well as Promo and Recap are also prepared
Music is also adjusted in by audio mixing by keeping music in fore ground, mid ground or background.
Choice of music is exercised in it and Sound leveling is done.
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
Live Sound Effects
Many of the sound effects (SFX) that you'll need to enhance the audio track of your television spot or
program will be available in a commercially available sound effects library and the staff will dub
selected effects to audio cassette at your request, and a TV station owns selected sound effects libraries
on compact disc. However, there are times when a prerecorded effect is not available, or doesn't fit just
right--the duration, intensity or character may not be just right. In these cases you may want to try some
tricks. Artists create manual sound effects to sync up with projected film or video images. This art is
very specialized and used primarily for feature film post-production. However, in a pinch you can use
the following tricks or make up you own to bring that special touch to your sound track.
Take care in choosing a microphone to pick up the audio effect. Pickup pattern and location can make a
great difference in the sound recorded. Also consider the acoustics of the location in which you are
working.
One last note: the SFX listed below were contributed by a variety of sources who claim that these
materials and actions will result in the so-stated SFX. In most cases it is true...in others you really
wonder.
ARROW IN FLIGHT--1) Use a 1/4-inch dowel rod approximately two foot long. Holding it at one
end, sharply sweep down past the mic at a distance of six inches. 2) For a shrill high pitched swish, use
a piece of umbrella rib with the open side facing the direction of the thrust past the mic. Proximity
makes a sound grow bigger, so the twang of a large rubber band will do well enough for the bow.
ARROW STRIKING--In real battles the arrows bounced off stone walls and towers making a rather
undramatic clatter. An arrow landing in wood, however, is so much more satisfying aurally, so
convention demands that all the best misses land in wooden paneling and tree-trunks. For this: 1) throw
a dart into a piece of wood close to the mic, or 2) use a heavy knife with a sharp point, and plunge
sharply into a large block of soft wood, such as balsa.
AUTO BRAKES SQUEAL--1) Drive two or three nails slightly through a piece of wood and scrape
the points on a sheet of glass which is sitting on top of small blocks of wood. The small blocks of wood
will aid in the resonance of the squeal. Try the same technique on various flat pieces of metal for other
effective squeals. 2) Slide a drinking glass with the top placed against a pane of glass.
BASEBALL HIT WITH BAT--Hold a short piece of rubber garden hose or a small mallet and strike a
large piece of bamboo.
BIRD WINGS--1) Using a hoop of stiff wire (about one foot in diameter), shape a wire handle, and sew
to the hoop a piece of old silk or satin, Allowing plenty of slack, using a sharp jerking motion popping
the slack material back and forth. According to the bird being simulated, vary the rhythm and tempo.
Bats may also be created by this method. 2) Hold a large feather duster in one hand and slap the feathers
(gently) against the other hand.
BLOWS TO THE HEAD'--1) Strike a pumpkin with a mallet. 2) Strike a baseball glove with a short
piece of garden hose.
BLOWS TO THE CHIN--1) lightly dampen a large powder puff and slap on your wrist close to the
mic. 2) hold a piece of sponge rubber in one hand and strike with the fist. 3) Slip on a thin leather glove
and strike the bare hand with the gloved fist.
BODY FALL--1) Drop a melon from the top of a ladder onto a slab of concrete. 2) Drop a gunny sack
filled with sawdust or sand on a hard floor. 3) For a truly gory fall, empty a bucket of wet rags on a slab
of cement...ugh!
BOILING WATER--Blow slowly through a straw into a glass of water. NOTE: thicker liquids may be
simulated by replacing the water with milk.
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
BOTTLE BEING OPENED--1) Use a child's pop gun. 2) Press two "plumbers friends" together and
pull suddenly apart. 3) Flick finger against cheek with open mouth. 4) Use a bottle with a tight fitting
cork.
BREAKING BONES--1) Chew Life Savers close to the mic. 2) Snap small diameter dowel rods
wrapped in soft paper.
BREAKING EGGS--Take a six-inch square of very course sand paper and fold corners in toward the
center, rough side up. Lay in the palm of your hand and squeeze suddenly.
BREEZE--Fold a newspaper into quarter size, then cut slices up from the bottom nearly to the top.
Holding it at the top, sways the paper near the mic, but don't touch it or you will cancel the illusion.
BRUSH CRACKLING--Use a broom straw, working it between your hands very close to the mic.
CRASHES--1) Metallic crashes may be made by piling a collection of tin and metal scraps into a large
tub and dumping it out. To get a sustained crash shake and rattle the tub until you need that big crash
sound. 2) Wooden crashes can be created by smashing any large type of wood fruit basket next to the
mic. 3) Door crashes are created by simple brute force, i.e., hitting a door with the shoulder, and
simultaneously smashing a wood fruit basket next to the mic.
CREAKS--1) Twist and squeeze an unwaxed paper cup next to the mic. 2) Mount a rusty hinge
between two blocks of wood. Then twist so that the hinge will bind as you either open or close the
hinge. 3) Use a combination of string, powdered resin, and cloth. The resin should be spread in the cloth
which is then pulled along the string. For the very best sound, the string should be attached to something
rigid such as a resonant wooden panel. Varying the pressure on the string will give you different types
of creaking sounds. 4) For the creak of a ship rubbing against a wharf, rub an inflated rubber balloon
close to the mic.
CRICKETS--Run your fingernail along the fine teeth of a very cheap plastic comb. Remember, the
sound should alternate between being very loud then soft.
DISH BREAK--Use castoff dishes or unfired pottery rejects. To get the true sound of the break, place
several pre-broken pieces of dishes in a whole dish, then drop. The whole dish may not break, but it will
give the impact effect, and the broken pieces will scatter, giving the sound of scattering fragments.
DRAWERS--Slide two pieces of wood together. Put a small crosspiece of wood on one so that the
other will hit it at the end of the slide indicating the close of the drawer.
EATING--For this effect, the complete noisemaking set consists of a single knife, fork, plate, cup
saucer, and spoon. It only takes a little of this noise to suggest a lot.
ELECTRIC SPARK--Rub two blocks of sandpaper-covered wood together in one fast long stroke.
ELEVATOR DOOR--Run a roller skate (old type with metal wheels) over a long, flat piece of metal.
There should be a wooden bumper at one end and several nails at the other, Rolling the skate against
nails gives the effect of opening the door, and the wood block for the close.
FALLING INTO THE WATER--The important thing here is to get the impact of the hit on the
surface of the water. To simulate this effect, however, reverse the procedure this way: Secure a large
wash tub or wooden tub. Fill it about 3/4 full of water. Get a bucket and sink it until it is full of water,
then turn it over, but keep it submerged. With the bottom side up, yank sharply out of the tub.
OR, Fill a bucket with water and have a plunger ready. For most splashes, have the more flexible rubber
lip folded into the bell, then plunge the plunger into the bucket. For a larger splash, just do it harder.
(Thanks to Wanderer)
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
FIRE--1) gently twists a piece of cellophane close to the mic. 2) For larger fires, add to the cellophane
the frequent snap of crackling pieces of berry box. 3) To get sudden flare of flames, lake the ignition of
gasoline-soaked wood, snap open an umbrella, then bring in the crackle of cellophane.
FOOTSTEPS: IN LEAVES--Stir corn flakes in a small cardboard box with the fingers. Watch the
rhythm of the walking.
FOOTSTEPS: IN MUD--In a large wash pan place several crumpled and shredded newspapers (paper
towels also work fine). Leave very little water in the pan. Simulate walking by using the palm of the
hand for footsteps.
FOOTSTEPS: IN SNOW--Squeeze a box of cornstarch with the fingers in the proper rhythm. Better
yet, put the cornstarch in a chamois bag.
FOOTSTEPS: ON STAIRS--Use just the ball of the foot in a forward sliding motion. Do not use the
heel.
GOLF BALL STRUCK--Use a swish stick (see: arrow in flight). Then at the end of the swing, strike a
small piece of two-by-four with a wooden mallet.
GUNSHOT--1) Strike a leather cushion with a thin flat stick, 2) Prick an inflated rubber balloon with a
pin. 3) Hit a large corrugated box with a curtain rod.
HIT IN THE FACE--To get the comedy effect of a person being slapped in the face with a ripe tomato,
pie, etc., use a wash basin and rags. In the wash basin, put a little water, then several layers of paper
towels or rags. Let these soak up the water. Next prepare a wad of rags so they may be easily held in the
hand. Soak the bundle of rags also, On cue, slap the wad of rags in the pan. This must be done quite
close to the mic, but not so close as to get the mic wet!
JAIL DOOR--The characteristic sound of an iron door is the noise when it clangs shut. For this, clang
two flat pieces of metal together, then let one slide along the other for a moment, signifying the bar
sliding into place.
LIGHTING A MATCH--There are two distinctive sounds in lighting a match: the igniting and flare of
the flame. Use large wooden matches and scratch on a piece of sandpaper about six inches from the mic.
As soon as the match flames, move as close to the mic as feasible. In this way the flare of the flame is
audible.
LOCOMOTIVES--1) a simple technique is to cover one side of two pieces of two-by-four with heavy
sandpaper. Rub the two sandpaper sides together. 2) A better technique is to use a cheap scrub brush
with a good handle on it. 3) The beat or rhythm differs between freight and a passenger steam
locomotive. The freight engine rhythm is CHUFF chuff, CHUFF chuff. Every other beat is accented. 4)
The passenger train sounds like this: CHUFF chuff chuff chuff, CHUFF chuff chuff chuff. The accent is
on the first of every four beats.
PHONE BOOTH DOOR--Unfold and fold the legs of a metal card table. Honest! Good luck however
finding a phone booth to shoot!
POURING A DRINK--Always touch the edge of the glass with the bottle to establish the sound.
RAIN--1) Take a ball of cellophane and loosely wrap it in tissue paper, then roll it slightly between the
hands. 2) Drop salt on different materials; in the case of a tin roof, drop the salt on a piece of metal.
SIZZLE--To get the sound of a sizzle as of someone backing into a hot stove; put a heated electric iron
into a very shallow pan of water. If you want the effect of bacon frying on the stove, place a little
lubricating oil on top of the water.
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TV News Reporting and Production ­ MCM 516
VU
Or, Stretch a piece of waxed paper taut next to the microphone. Pour uncooked rice onto the paper.
(This effect can also stand in for the sound of rain.)
TELEPHONE--Adapt a standard telephone so that the buzzer can be worked by a press button. In
order to suggest that the ring is stopped by picking up the hand-piece, it is usual to finish up in the
middle of the ring, followed quickly by the sound of the hand-piece being lifted. As this last sound is
much quieter than the ringing it should be emphasized a little. Cut down on the amount of figures to be
dialed, but if calling a known location, use dialogue over, or make sure the first three digits are 555.
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Table of Contents:
  1. CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION FOR TELEVISION:Video Procedures
  2. PRE-REQUISITES OF A CREATIVE PRODUCER/DIRECTOR:SET-UP RESPONSIBILITIES
  3. REFINING AN IDEA FOR PRODUCTION:Drama, Magazine Shows, Documentary
  4. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:Variable. Pure and applied research
  5. RESEARCH AND REVIEWS:Research Procedure, Review of available literature
  6. SCRIPT WRITING:Elements of a successful story, Characters, Effects
  7. PRE-PRODUCTION PHASE:Indoor production, Outdoor production, Essentials of PBE
  8. SELECTION OF REQUIRED CONTENT AND TALENT:Camera rehearsal
  9. PROGRAMME PLANNING:Checklist, Electronic Field Production (EFP)
  10. PRODUCTION PHASE:Floor plan, Traditional set, Representational set, Design elements
  11. CAMERA WORK:Movement of lens of camera, Types of shots
  12. LIGHT AND AUDIO:Importance of sound in TV, Use of microphone, Loudness
  13. DAY OF RECORDING/PRODUCTION:Rehearsals,Point to ponder
  14. LINEAR EDITING AND NLE:Episode, Scene, Editing, Production Switcher
  15. MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS:Live Sound Effects, ARROW STRIKING
  16. SELECTION OF THE NEWS:Elements of news, Timeliness, proximity
  17. WRITING OF THE NEWS:The inverted pyramid, Lead, Credit line
  18. EDITING OF THE NEWS:Characteristics of good news:Process of editing a news
  19. COMPILATION OF NEWS BULLETIN:Hard news, Soft news, Investigative report
  20. PRESENTATION OF NEWS BULLETIN
  21. MAKING SPECIAL BULLETINS:Agriculture, Show biz, Fashion, Drama
  22. TECHNICAL CODES, TERMINOLOGY, AND PRODUCTION GRAMMAR
  23. TYPES OF TV PRODUCTION:Magazine Shows, Specific audience programming
  24. DRAMA AND DOCUMENTARY:Documentary film, Defining documentary
  25. SOURCES OF TV NEWS:Reporters, Correspondents, Monitoring, News Agency
  26. FUNCTIONS OF A REPORTER
  27. BEATS OF REPORTING:City reporter, Social reporters, Show-biz reporter
  28. STRUCTURE OF NEWS DEPARTMENT:Beat Reporters, Online media
  29. ELECTRONIC FIELD PRODUCTION:Sports, Electronic news gathering
  30. LIVE TRANSMISSIONS:Studio floor, Switcher, Master control room, Camera control units
  31. QUALITIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER:Determination, Awareness, Sharp an active
  32. DUTIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER
  33. ASSIGNMENT/NEWS EDITOR:Accuracy, Fairness and Reliability, Conflict
  34. SHOOTING A NEWS FILM:The Influence of telecast News
  35. PREPARATION OF SPECIAL REPORTS:Uncovering Truth, Reportage
  36. INTERVIEWS, VOX POPS AND PUBLIC OPINIONS:INTERVIEW, Information
  37. BACK GROUND VOICE AND VOICE OVER:Natural or Raw Sound, Sound Effects
  38. SPOKEN WORDS AND RELEVANT VISUALS:Digital Audio, Quantizing Error
  39. TALK SHOWS, FORUMS AND DISCUSSION PROGRAMMES
  40. FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF A TV SET UP
  41. PROGRAMMES DEPARTMENT:Program content, Television series by genre
  42. NEWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS THE PROGRAMMING & SCHEDULING
  43. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION
  44. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION - 2 SUB-DEPARTMENTS AND SMALL SECTIONS
  45. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3