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Principles of Management

MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 2.5
MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS
Level of Managers in an Organization:
Top Managers
Middle Mangers
First-Line Managers
Non-managerial Employees
First-line managers (or first-line supervisors) are those managers having the least authority and are at
the lowest level in the hierarchy of the organization. First-line managers are at the lowest level of
management and manage the work of non-managerial individuals who are involved with the production or
creation of the organization's products. They're often called supervisors but may also be called line
managers, office managers, or even foremen. They are directly responsible for the work of operating (non-
managerial) employees.
a.
Titles often include the term, "supervisor."
b.
Factors changing the jobs of first-line managers include emphasis upon worker participation
and teamwork and the use of computers to regulate many activities formerly regulated by
first-line managers.
c.
The jobs of first-line managers are likely to change toward a greater emphasis on dealing with
internal human relations.
Middle-level managers are those managers beneath the top-levels of the hierarchy and directly supervise
other managers below them. It includes all levels of management between the first-line level and the top
level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such
as department head, project leader, plant managers, or division manager.
a.
Typical titles include "manager," "director of," "chief," department head," and "division
head."
b.
Middle managers are mainly responsible for implementing overall organizational plans so that
organizational goals are achieved as expected.
c.
They plan, allocate resources to meet objectives and coordinate and link groups, departments,
and divisions within a company.
d.
They monitor and manage the performance of the subunits and individual managers who
report to them.
e.
Implement changes or strategies generated by top managers.
f.
The modern trend of adding layers of middle management is reversing as companies reduce
the number of levels in the managerial hierarchy.
g.
Reducing the number of levels of managers' results in greater power and responsibility for
those managers who remain.
h.
It is predicted that there will be increasingly less emphasis on hierarchical levels in
organization.
Top managers are those managers at the very top levels of the hierarchy who have the most authority and
who are ultimately responsible for the entire organization. They are those who are responsible for making
organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These
individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief
operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board.
a.
Other titles include "chief executive officer (CEO)," "president," "executive vice president,"
"executive director," "senior vice president," and sometimes, "vice president."
b.
They oversee overall planning for the organization, work with middle managers in
implementing and planning, and maintain overall control over the progress of the
organization.
c.
In those public corporation that sell their stock to the public, top managers' report to the
board of directors whose function is to represent the interests of the stockholders.
d.
d. They are responsible for the overall direction of the organization and for creating the
context for change.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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e.
e. They develop in employees the attitudes of commitment to and ownership in the
company's performance and create a positive organizational culture through language and
action.
f.
The board of directors appoints the CEO (who sometimes also serves as the Chairman or
Chairwoman of the Board). The CEO then appoints the other top managers subject to board
approval.
Difference in Functions of Management within the Hierarchy:
A number of aspects of the management process differ within the hierarchy. The importance of each of the
functions of management differs from one managerial level to another.
a.
Planning tends to be more important for top-level managers.
b.
Organizing tends to be more important for both top and middle-level managers.
c.
Leading is more important for first-line managers.
d.
Controlling is important among all levels of the hierarchy.
Management Skills, Knowledge and Performance
A.
Managers need a knowledge base. This knowledge base provides a context for the manager's
activities. It can include information about an industry and its technology, company policies and
practices, company goals and plans, company culture, the personalities of key organization
members, and important suppliers and customers.
B.
Managers need three types of key skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being a
manager.
1.
Technical skills are skills that reflect both an understanding of and a proficiency in a specialized
field. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field, such as
engineering, computers, accounting, or manufacturing. These skills are more important at lower
levels of management since these managers are dealing directly with employees doing the
organization's work.
2.
Human skills are associated with a manager's ability to work well with others both as a member of
a group and as a leader who gets things done through others. Because managers deal directly with
people, this skill is crucial! Managers with good human skills are able to get the best out of their
people. They know how to communicate, motivate, lead, and inspire enthusiasm and trust. These
skills are equally important at all levels of management.
3.
Conceptual skills are skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, discern
interrelationships among organizational parts, and understand how the organization fit into the
wider context of the industry, community, and world. Conceptual skills are the skills managers must
have to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations. Using these skills,
managers must be able to see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships among
various submits, and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment.
C
The concept of organizational performance was analyzed by Peter Drucker.
1.
Effectiveness is the ability to choose appropriate goals and to achieve those goals.
Efficiency is the ability to make the best use of available resources in the process
2.
of achieving goals. Efficiency is the ration of inputs used to achieve some level of
outputs
Managing in the 21st century:
A.
The world of business has changed dramatically in the past generation or so. Technology
has shrunk distances; made communications possible in real-time all around the globe;
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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made possible computers with incredibly large memories and super fast speeds; made us
more aware of different places, peoples and cultures; and provided businesses with the
opportunity to compete in nearly any market in the world.
B.
Four trends are likely to impact managerial work in the future.
1.
Successful managers in the twenty-first century will have to be able to guide their
companies through shifts in economic conditions, modifications in customer
preferences, rapidly changing technology, and other changes.  Increasingly,
successful companies will relay on innovation to successfully meet these changes
2.
The work force is becoming increasingly diverse. Managers will need to be able to
effectively utilize a much broader selection of personnel in the immediate future.
Managing diversity is the planning and implementing of organizational systems
and practices that maximize the potential of employees to contribute to
organizational goals and develop their capabilities unhindered by group identities
such as race, gender, age, or ethnic group. In the coming millennium, managers
themselves will reflect the emerging diversity and, at the same time, will need to be
able to effectively utilize and increasingly diverse work force.
3.
Businesses increasingly face global competition; therefore, managers need to have
greater knowledge of international business and to develop a global perspective
Businesses are also more likely to be operating in more than one county.
4.
Quality management programs have become increasingly important and total
quality management program aimed at continuous improvement have been
implemented in many business. Global competition has created an emphasis for
better quality.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY