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History and Systems of Psychology

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS

<< GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition >>
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 10
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Perhaps the most important development in the last one thousand years was the Industrial
Revolution of the late 18th and 19th centuries. This was the real beginning of our modern world. Its main
features were:
Hand to machine manufacture
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Home to factory production
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Natural power to mechanical power
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It was also characterized by a movement of people from villages to new industrial cities and the
rapid development of transport.
The steam engine was the heart of industrial revolution. The first really practical engine was
invented by the Scotsman James Watt in about 1775. For the first time in history, people did not have to
rely on human or animal muscle, wind or water, for power. Very quickly the steam engine was being used
for many things other than powering textile machines. It was used to pump water from coal mines; to lift
trucks of coal to the surface; to blow air into furnaces for making of iron; to grind clay for pottery, and to
power new factories of all kinds. For over a hundred years, steam was the king of the industry.
Steam Engine being used for transportation
The rate, at which new inventions were made, accelerated. The industrial Revolution consisted, in
some respects, of a chain reaction. The construction of machines required more iron; more iron required
more coal; more coal required faster and more efficient transport; more transport required engineering skills
of all kinds. The manufacture of larger quantities of textiles, for example, needed more chemicals; new
chemicals needed more scientists; scientist needed more specialized education.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Large numbers of workers had to move to new towns from countryside: they needed transport,
housing, water, sanitation, shops, entertainment, a police force and general organization. The increased
amounts of trading led to the need for more services such as banking, the post and later transport systems.
The industrial revolution changed England, and then spread to France, then affected Germany,
then Russia and America, then Japan and then the rest of the world. Machines replaced much of the manual
labor, industry developed and flourished, means of communication became rapid, electricity was invented
and used for commercial purposes and an industrial class emerged which replaced feudalism. New ideas and
curiosity were encouraged, and man's outlook and his attitude changed.
The industrial revolution does a great deal to the modern world today. The effect of this revolution
could be seen immediately on the whole outlook of man, and it ultimately affected all the future
developments of mankind. Man's outlook became more empirical and more open towards new ideas and
innovations.
RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
Ivan Sechenov
Ivan Sechenov
The first among the Russian contributors was Ivan Sechenov. He was born on 1st August, 1829 and
he died on 2nd November, 1905. He taught at Moscow University. Ivan was physiologist, named by Ivan
Pavlov as "The Father of Russian physiology." Sechenov authored major classic "Reflexes of the Brain"
introducing electrophysiology and neurophysiology into laboratories and teaching of medicine. Sechenov's
major interest was neurophysiology (the structure of the brain). He showed that brain activity is linked to
electric currents and was the first to introduce electrophysiology. His work laid the foundations for the
study of reflexes, animal and human behavior, and neuroscience.
Sechenov explained psychological functions in terms of physiological responses. This means that all
psychological responses of the brain have some physiological reason or basis. In other words, when the
brain acts in a certain manner, it is in response to certain physiological changes that have taken place.
Sechenov said that the mind and soul are the functions of the brain and that there is no duality
between soul and the body. Therefore, he rejected the prevailing view of soul and the body being separate
and accepted the Aristotelian point of view of unity of body and soul.
Sechenov concluded that all psychological responses are the result of sensory stimulation and that
all psychological responses manifest themselves in behavioral forms. In other words, whenever there is a
change in the environment, it is received by the sensory organs of the body which convey it to the brain.
The brain then reacts to these messages. This reaction of the brain is manifested in the form of the behavior
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
of the person. For example when a person touches a hot surface, the sensory organs in his or her skin
transmit the information to the brain which in turn sends back the signal to the body to withdraw away
from the hot surface. Therefore, the behavior of the person is the response to the physiological change.
Sechenov also put forward the view that there are certain parts in the brain that augment and
facilitate certain responses, and are certain other parts which inhibit certain responses. We now know this to
be true. Sechenov's ideas deeply influenced the ideas of psychology and formed the basis of many new
researches in the subject.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology