Human Relations

HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings

CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons >>
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 01
Human relations seem to be an easy and a common sense subject. It can make our lives easy and
comfortable or difficult and miserable. Human relations are at work not only in our work lives but also in
our family and in our personal lives. The term Human Relations in its broadest sense covers all types of
interactions among people. It is a study of WHY our beliefs, attitudes and behaviors some times CAUSE
interpersonal conflicts in our personal lives and in work related situations. This subject focuses on the
systematic analysis of human behavior, preventing conflict, and resolution of behavioral problems.
The subject can help in the development of interpersonal relations and produce those abilities which
promote good working relations with people at work and also in personal life. This course aims to develop
the abilities to resolve conflicts amicably and to address the various interpersonal issues congenially. An
American research suggests that for personal success, only 15 percent contribution comes from technical
skills and 85 percent contribution comes from interpersonal skills. This finding from a Western
environment may not be that applicable to Pakistani environment but it is quite certain that the major
contribution towards personal success comes from interpersonal skills.
In an organization, managers are concerned with three types of resources,
1. Physical resources;
2. Financial resources;
3. Human resources;
Physical and Financial resources are the building, furniture, environment, money etc. Human resource is the
most important resource that managers have to deal with efficiently and effectively. Good human resource
is capable and will be profitable for the organization. Suppose a situation arises that people within an
organization don't get along with one another. There are conflicts over small and large issues, day in and
day out. Resolving these conflicts uses most of the energy of the employees and as a result physical and
financial resources are not used to the optimum level.
How human relations or interpersonal skills affect the people in an organization and how they relate to one
another and get things done in a congenial manner, not only affects its work environment but also have an
impact for the profits/outcomes of the company.
The main question now arises is HOW TO DEVELOP GOOD HUMAN RELATIONS?
Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations:
1. Keep a positive approach.
2. Be an optimistic person.
3. Be genuinely interested in others.
4. Call people politely by name.
5. Help other people whenever possible.
6. Create a Win-Win situation.
7. Think before you act.
8. Have open communication.
9. Develop a pleasant work environment.
One main question to develop and improve human relations is to understand yourself. There are three
aspects of a person:
1. Private Self: The personal life of a person.
2. Projected Self: What the person would like to project in public.
3. Perceived Self: The way people see us.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
The Perceived self is important because people will behave the way they identify you. If you ask them to do
something for you in a work place or in an office there behavior will be determined by what they perceive
of you. If they know for example: that you mean business and want the work done in your particular way
they won't ignore you but will act according to your instructions. Our relations with others will affect our
perceived self and vice versa.
Communication has 3meanings, in any form
1. Pure Meaning: The meaning which I use through words e.g. dictionary.
2. Intended Meaning: Which I want to convey to another person in written or spoken form.
3. Perceived Meanings: Those messages that we convey and how these are taken by the different
"Pure meaning" may not be as important as the other two. The most important one is perceived meaning
because the actions of others depend on the meaning they take of our words. The "Intended Meaning" and
"Perceived Meanings" should be the same that is people should comprehend what we say as we say and
mean it. The problem occurs when there is a difference in the "intended meaning" that is what we want to
say and "perceived meaning" that is what others understand about what we have said.
In an organization it is important to get the message through. Good communication can result in improved
human relations if the message is adequately communicated the employees will know what is required, how
it is to be done and so on.
Group behavior is dependent upon clear cut exchange of views among group members. To produce goods
and services best results can be obtained if people work optimally and optimistically. To make this happen
communication can play a critical role. e.g. Taking the example of Japan, leaders in manufacturing. How did
they achieve this? This simply added the human component in business. Automobiles manufacturing was
not so profitable in America so it was shifted to Japan, Where they turned this unprofitable business into a
huge success. In car manufacturing a worker does the same job monotonously day after day. They broke
this monotony, introduced variation in the work and congenial work environment which resulted in
improved work output resulting in increased company output.
The concepts of Empathy and Apathy are cardinal to improve human relations. Apathy refers to an
unconcerned state in which a person is un-interested in what is happening, and feels that nothing will
happen even if he puts an effort. The person is not interested in the affairs of an organization and is just
doing his job. Empathy refers to the state when you can "put your self in the shoes of another person". You
can understand why someone said or did a particular thing or act in a certain way. When an organization
hires a person, he is hired as a total person comprising of both technical and human skills. Working in an
organization not only does the person or an individual become a part of the company/organization, the
company also becomes the part of a person, e.g. in Japan every company has its own song, in the morning
all the employees get together and recites the company song giving them a sense of unity and oneness.
There is a strong link between the individual and the company even though they have different ends in their
minds. For this reason it is difficult to get work done by people. People may face problems with the
organization or with the people working in the organizations at the management or at the individual level.
Humans are complex thinking machines. They have all sorts of problems even those outside the
organizations like family problems etc. which makes it difficult or challenging to manage them and to get
work done. Technically speaking it is easier to work with a machine, just press a button and get the desired
results, but working with humans is a complex issue. They have social, psychological, and emotional issues.
The workers and organizations can benefit from a win-win situation. Such a situation in which both the
employer and the employees are happy. A healthy relationship means that both parties' needs are met, and
satisfied in such a way that each achieves its goals.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
There is a strong link between personal life and work life. People work to have good life and work for a
better living. If one performs well on job the employer is satisfied, this satisfaction will affect his personal
life also. Similarly if a person is satisfied with personal relations within family, friends and his social circle,
he will do well on the job as well. He may be rewarded for his good work. Therefore there is strong link
between a job life and a home life, both effecting each other.
Human beings are Social animals who like to live in groups and not in isolation. If they are happy, sad,
depressed, lonely etc they want some sort of human support around. If people do not know how to get
along with others then they can't get the required work done. Loneliness effects person's performance.
Some people can't relate adequately to the others and as a result end up with problems in relating to other
people. There are still others who don't accept people for what they are? e.g. if we have a friend we are
usually critical about him or some of his habits. We want to change him and make him the way we are it is
important to understand that all humans are different. Every one has some negative and some positive
traits. This trait gives humans the individuality.
In organizational work diversity among workers is now considered to be a plus point as organizations have
to get several types of work done, they need people who are good at different things and have different
skills through which the organization can achieve its goals. e.g., some people are good in their written
discourse while others are better in spoken discourse. Some are good financial managers while others are
excellent team leaders.
Major themes in "Effective Human Relations":
Self awareness.
Self acceptance.
Self discourse.
Conflict management.
Major forces "Influencing Worker Behavior":
Organizational culture mission value standards.
Work group Influence Social support.
Personal characteristics of worker abilities interests, Aptitudes, Value expectations.
Supervisory management influence, philosophy leadership Style.
Job influence meaningfulness responsibility knowledge of results.
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People