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HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES

<< WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology >>
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LESSON 02
HISTORY OF RADIO
The story of radio goes on. Immediate after the first regular transmission of radio at Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania America, radio stations were started being set up in different countries.
B.B.C. ­ 1922
In 1922, British Broadcasting Company was set up in England. Later on it was converted into British
Broadcasting Corporation in 1927. It goes without saying that B.B.C. is one of the biggest broadcasting
networks in the world putting its transmission in almost every language in the world.
World War II 1939- 45 and the Role of Radio
Important facts:
Location:
Europe, Pacific, South East Asia, Middle East, Mediterranean, Africa.
Allied forces: Soviet Union, USA, UK, France, India, China, Canada.
Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungry, Finland.
Causalities:
62 million people died
(2.5 % of the world population)
60% of casualties were civilians
Allied remained victorious
All news and information went only on Radio. Leaders used radio effectively to boost up the morale of their
people and soldiers.
Churchill went on air
"We shall go on the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence
and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall
fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender."
Role of Radio after 2nd World War
The destruction and devastation of the war was so horrible and painful that the minds of the time were
forced to think how to save people from the monster of wars in future. In creating awareness and hatred
against the effects and after effects of the war, radio played a very vital role. Discussions against war,
speeches of peace lovers and talks highlighting the aftereffects of wars were started being broadcast which
led the world to have a set-up like UNITED NATIONS to save the world from war.
Radio in Sub-Continent
March 1926
The Indian Broadcasting Company. A private company was formed.
23rd July,1927
IBC started a station at Bombay. The beginning of broadcasting in sub-continent.
1928
A small transmitting station was set up at Lahore.
April 1930
Broadcasting under the direct control of Govt. under the title of Indian State Broadcasting
Service
Jan 1934
The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 came into force.
Jan 1935
Peshawar Radio Station was set up by NWFP Government ­ 250 watts transmitter.
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Jan 1936
Delhi Radio Station was Opened.
A.S. Bukhari ­ Station Director.
June 1936
Indian State Broadcasting Service was changed into All India Radio.
Dec 1937
The Lahore Radio Station went on air
1939
Dhaka Radio station was opened
12th Nov 1939
Quaid-e-Azam's first radio broadcast from Bombay on Eid-Day
July 1942
Peshawar Radio Station formally inaugurated
3rd June 1947
Quaid-e-Azam makes historic address on All India Radio and announces the creation of newly
independent state of Pakistan for the Muslims of the Sub-Continent
14 August 1947: Emergence of Pakistan
The 1st news bulletin went on air from Radio Pakistan on--AUG.14, 1947.
"Pakistan, the largest Muslim state and the fifth one in the world came into being with the click of clock at
midnight last night. The dream became a reality in the unbelievable short span of six years in the face of the
stiffest opposition.
Faith in God, with unity and discipline among their ranks and convinced of the great role destined for them
in the comity of nations, the dynamic people of Pakistan shall now march on to achieve their cherished
goal."
Early Challenges and Role of Radio
Rehabilitation of Muhajerin
Muslims from India migrated to Pakistan. Besides their rehabilitation, their consolation was also a big
challenge to be taken up. Radio programmes were specially designed to revitalize the courage and strengths
of muhajerin.
India's onslaught on Kashmir-1948 and Radio
Immediate after the independence, India let its forces into Kashmir that was geographically, religiously and
culturally closer to Pakistan than India. Rawalpindi radio station-3 broadcast programmes to assure
kashmiris that at that hour of trial they were not alone.
11thSep. 1948 ­ Quaid-e-Azam passed away
Shakeel Ehmad read the news with graphic and moving description.
Sep. 1965 India again assaults Pakistan.--radio fought along with nation and army.
Expansion of radio stations in Pakistan
THREE Radio stations- Dhaka (1939), Lahore (1928 -1937) and Peshawar (1935-1942) came in Pakistan on
independence.
Setting up of further radio stations in every nook and corner of Pakistan is as under:
1948
Rawalpindi-3 Radio Station. ­ 500 watts' shortwave transmitter
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1948
Karachi Radio station ­ 100 watts' shortwave transmitter
1949
Rawalpindi station ­ 100 watts' Medium wave transmitter
1950
Karachi Radio Station
1951
Hyderabad Radio Station ­ 1 KW/ SW transmitter
Oct 1956
Quetta Radio Station 1 KW/ SW Transmitter.
Oct 1960
Rawalpindi ­ 2 Radio Station 1KW/ SW Transmitter.
1970
Staff training and technical training school at Islamabad.
1970
Multan Radio Station 120 KW/ MW.
20 Dec.1972
Radio Pakistan was converted into "Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation.
(PBC)
April 1973
World service for overseas Pakistanis
1974
Khairpur Radio station 100 KW
August 1975
Bhawalpur Radio Station 10 KW/ MW
1977
Islamabad Radio Station in the new national Broadcasting house 1000
KW/ MW transmitter
1977:
Skardu Radio Station 250 W/MW
1981:
Turbat Radio Station 250 W/MW
1981:
D.I. Khan Radio Station 10 KW/MW
1981:
Khuzdar Radio Station 250 W/MW
Sept 1982:
Faislabad Radio Station 250 W/MW
May 1986:
New BH at Khairpur
1989:
Sibi Relay Station - 250 W Trans
1989:
Abbotabad Relay Station 250 W/Trans
Aug 1993:
Chittral Radio Station 1 KW/FM Trans
1996:
Loralai Radio Station 10 KW/MW
1996:
Zhob Radio Station 10 KW/MW
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PBC SERVICES:
Home Service (Domestic Network) 21 languages.
World Service for Overseas Pakistanis (Middle-East and Western Europe)
External Service (in almost all important international languages)
News and Current Affairs
Saut ul Quran (Religious Broadcasting
Emergence of FM Broadcasting (1940s)
What is FM?
FM Broadcasting­ Edwin Howard Armstrong (Inventor)
FM ­ Frequency Modulation
Hi-fidelity sound
Music-News-Sports
First FM Broadcasting stations ­ USA 1940s (Classical Music)
Late 1960s FM became more popular.
1978 FM Stations exceeded AM stations
Emergence of FM in Pakistan (1990s)
First FM Radio ­ FM100
FM 101 (Government Owned)
FM 103
FM 98
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FM 89 and many more.
AM Broadcast ­ Low-Fidelity Sound
AM = Amplitude Modulation
Started in 1906
In 1920s first American radio station was set up at Pittsburg Pennsylvania
1920 to 1950 ­ Golden age of Radio ­ Drama, Music, Comedy and other entertainment programs got
immense popularity.
Distinction between FM & AM
FM = Hi-Fidelity Sound
AM = Low-Fidelity sound
FM = Voice and reception as clear as possible.
AM =Disrupted in large urban cities by concrete bridges, metal reinforcements, tall buildings other audio
frequencies, and electrical noise.
As a result, AM radio has lost its dominance as a music broadcasting service.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production