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EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis

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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Lesson 40
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
Theoretical Explanations for the Relationship between Exercise and Improved Mental Health
Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain why exercise is associated with improved mental health.
We will be discussing six of them. The first three explanations are considered to be psychological in nature,
while the remaining three are physiological in nature.
Psychological Explanations
Cognitive Behavioral Hypothesis
The basic premise of the cognitive behavioral hypothesis is that exercise encourages and generates positive
thoughts and feelings that serve to counteract negative mood states such as depression, anxiety, and
confusion.
When individuals master task s they perceive to be difficult, they experience an increase in self-efficacy.
Exercise is perceived by nonexercisers as a difficult task. When to nonexercisers succeeds in becoming a
regular exerciser, she experiences a feeling of accomplishment and self-efficacy. An increase in self-efficacy
is helpful in breaking the downward spiral of negative affect associated with depression, anxiety, and other
negative mood states.
Social Interaction Hypothesis
The basic premise of the social interaction hypothesis is that social interaction associated with exercising
with friends and colleagues is pleasurable and has the net effect of improving mental health.
Distraction Hypothesis
The basic premise of the distraction hypothesis is that exercise affords an opportunity for individuals to be
distracted from their worries and frustrations. It may be that distraction provides a viable explanation for
short-term reduction in depression and anxiety, but not for long-term reduction.
Physiological Explanations
Cardiovascular Fitness Hypothesis
The basic premise of the cardiovascular fitness hypothesis is that improved mood state is associated with
improved cardiovascular fitness.
Amine Hypothesis
The basic premise of the amine hypothesis is that increased secretion of chemicals that serve as
neurotransmitters is related to improved mental health. Theoretically, exercise stimulates the production of
neurotransmitters that in turn have a positive effect upon psychological mood.
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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Endorphin Hypothesis
The endorphin hypothesis postulates that exercise is associated with brain production of chemicals that
have a "morphine-like" effect on the exerciser (pain reduction and general euphoria). This effect has been
referred to, in popular literature, as the ''runner's high." The general euphoria produced by the endorphins
serves to reduce the levels of depression, anxiety, confusion, and other negative mood states.
Exercise Adherence and Determinants
Another important aspect of exercise psychology is to determine what motivates individuals to start
exercising, what motivates them to adhere to an exercise program, and what motivates them to try again
after failing the first (or second) time.
Transition from Sedentary State to Exercise Adoption
Exercise determinants motivate individuals to make the transition from sedentary lifestyle to regular
exercise. Individuals likely to adopt a vigorous exercise lifestyle exhibit the following characteristics:
1.
Confidence they can succeed at a vigorous exercise program (exercise self-efficacy)
2.
Knowledge about what constitutes a healthy lifestyle.
3.
Knowledge about the importance and value of regular exercise.
4.
The perception that they enjoy a high level of self-control.
5.
Good attitudes about the value and importance of regular exercise.
6.
Initial condition of not being overweight or obese.
It has often been hypothesized that parental involvement in vigorous physical activity would be a strong
determinant of the exercise behavior of their children. What does predict vigorous physical activity in
children is parental beliefs about the value and importance of vigorous physical activity.
Transition from Adoption to Maintenance or Dropout Status
Determinants of exercise adherence are:
1.
Available time.
2.
Behavioral coping skills
3.
Equipment and facility accessibility
4.
Exercise self-efficacy
5.
Group cohesion
6.
High risk of heart disease
7.
Intrinsic motivation
8.
Personal perception of good health
9.
Social support
Determinants of exercise nonadherence are:
1.
Being a blue-collar worker
2.
Being overweight or obese
3.
Mood state disturbance relative to exercise
4.
Physical discomfort during exercise
5.
Being a smoker
6.
Social physique anxiety
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Sport Psychology(psy407)
VU
Transition from Dropout Status to Exercise Resumption
The transition from being an exercise dropout to resuming a vigorous exercise program is an important part
of the exercise psychology literature but statistics are not available on the percentage of people who drop
out off an exercise program and then get started again.
References
Cox, H. Richard. (2002). Sport Psychology: Concepts and Applications. (Fifth Edition). New York:
McGraw-Hill Companies
Lavallec. D., Kremer, J., Moran, A., & Williams. M. (2004) Sports Psychology: Contemporary Themes. New
York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers
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118
Table of Contents:
  1. SPORT PSYCHOLOGY DEFINED:Issue of Certification, The Research Sport Psychologist
  2. SELF-CONFIDENCE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Successful Performance, Verbal persuasion
  3. SELECTING SELF-TALK STATEMENTS:Skill accusation, Controlling effort
  4. GOAL ORIENTATION:Goal Involvement, Motivational Climate
  5. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION IN SPORT:Fritz Heiderís Contribution, Other Considerations
  6. CAUSAL ATTRIBUTIONS IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS:Locus of Causality
  7. MOTIVATION IN SPORT:Social Factors, Success and Failure, Coachesí Behavior
  8. FLOW: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF OPTIMAL EXPERIENCE, Goal Setting in Sport
  9. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE GOAL SETTING:Clearly identify time constraints
  10. A TEAM APPROACH TO SETTING GOALS:The Planning Phase, The Meeting Phase
  11. YOUTH SPORT:Distress and anxiety, Coach-Parent Relationships
  12. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Information Processing, Memory Systems
  13. ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION IN SPORT:Measuring Attentional Focus
  14. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Personality Defined, Psychodynamic Theory
  15. THE MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY:Projective Procedures, Structured Questionnaire
  16. PERSONALITY AND THE ATHLETE:Athletic Motivation Inventory, Personality Sport Type
  17. SITUATIONAL FACTORS RELATED TO ANXIETY AND MOOD:Type of Sport
  18. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:Emotion and Mood
  19. ANXIETY, AROUSAL, AND STRESS RELATIONSHIPS:The Inverted-U Theory
  20. ALTERNATIVES TO INVERTED-U THEORY:Apterís Reversal Theory
  21. COPING STRATEGIES IN SPORT:Measurement of Coping Skill
  22. RELAXATION STRATEGIES FOR SPORT:Progressive Relaxation, Autogenic Training
  23. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Team Energizing Strategies, Fan Support
  24. AROUSAL ENERGIZING STRATEGIES:Precompetition Workout, Individual Goal Setting
  25. IMAGERY:Skill Level of the Athletes, Time Factors and Mental Practice
  26. IMAGERY:Symbolic Learning Theory, Imagery Perspective. Sensory Mode
  27. IMAGERY:Paivioís Two-Dimensional Model, Developing Imagery Skills
  28. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Defining Hypnosis, Social-Cognitive Theory
  29. THE ROLE OF HYPNOSIS IN SPORT:Achieving the Hypnotic Trance, Hypnotic Phase
  30. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Psychological Skills Training Program
  31. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING:Performance profiling, Performance routines
  32. ETHICS IN SPORT PSYCHOLOGY:Competence, Integrity, Social Responsibility
  33. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:Defining Aggression, Catharsis hypothesis
  34. AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN SPORT:The Catharsis Effect, Fan Violence
  35. AUDIENCE AND CROWD EFFECTS IN SPORTS:Social Facilitation, Crowd Hostility
  36. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Measurement of Team Cohesion
  37. TEAM COHESION IN SPORT:Predicting Future Participation, Team Building
  38. LEADERSHIP IN SPORT:Fiedlerís Contingency Theory, Coach-Athlete Compatibility
  39. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Special Populations, Clinical Patients
  40. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Social Interaction Hypothesis, Amine Hypothesis
  41. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:The Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory
  42. EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY:Exercise Addiction, Bulimia Nervosa, Muscle Dysmorphia
  43. BURNOUT IN ATHLETES:Overtraining and Overreaching, Recommended Intervention
  44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATHLETIC INJURIES:Personality Factors, Coping Resources
  45. DRUG ABUSE IN SPORT AND EXERCISE:Stimulants, Depressants