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History and Systems of Psychology

EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 16
EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS
David Katz
The first of the European functionalists was David Katz. He taught psychology at Stockholm,
Sweden, for a number of years. In order to develop theory of functions of consciousness, Katz
experimented upon how we see colors. He showed through his experiments that the perception of colors
remains constant in different lights. This means that if someone is asked about a color in one kind of light,
his or her answer would be the same in another kind of light. But in reality, colors change because of
different lights. David Katz showed that human subjects see them as before. This he called the
"phenomenon of color constancy." Katz purported that color constancy is a function of the consciousness
which makes the person perceive a color in the same way as before. Therefore, Katz also focused on
explaining the functions of consciousness and hence included in the functionalist school of thought.
Edgar Rubin
The other European functionalist was Edgar Rubin who taught at Copenhagen, Holland. Rubin
showed by his experiments on perception, that human beings see shapes in terms of figure and ground.
This is not just limited to the sense of vision but also on other senses. For example, in case of the sense of
vision, sky is the ground and clouds are the figures. When we look at the clouds, we acknowledge their
existence because they exist in a background of the blue sky. Further, when we look at a tree, the sky again
serves as the background while the tree is the figure in the background. In case of other senses, the sense of
hearing also depicts this phenomenon. When we listen to a song, the music being played is the ground and
voice of the singer is the figure. Therefore, Edgar Rubin also focused on how the consciousness functions
rather than the structure of the consciousness.
Jean Piaget
The third European functionalist was Jean Piaget who worked at Geneva and Zurich, Switzerland.
Piaget is famous for his theory of how children's minds develop.
He postulated the concept of Schemata. According to him, Schemata is a construct or an idea in
the mind of children that how the world is, and how the world functions. In other words, it is what the
children perceive about the world around them. They think about how everything occurs, how things go
about and how they function. Of all this they make up explanations which according to Piaget is a
Schemata.
Schemata develop over the time by two processes:
·
Assimilation
·
Accommodation
Here, assimilation is the absorption of new and different information about the world and
accommodation according to Piaget is the expanding, stretching and changing of schemata to absorb new
information about the world. This means that when a child is exposed to various happening of the world he
absorbs information from the happenings. This information, collection or absorption process is called
assimilation. On the other hand, the information is a subject to constant change. As the child grows, he is
exposed to more and more information which requires constant refurbishing of the previously gathered
information. This process is called accommodation.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Another contribution of Jean Piaget is that he elaborated how children develop. According to him
development takes place in four stages:
·
The sensory-motor stage
This is the first stage of development when children learn using their sensations. For example a
child touches a hot object and is hurt, this would create awareness in his or her mind that
touching hot objects is harmful. Therefore, the child learns by using the sensations. Further all
sensations like hot, cold, rough, smooth shall result in learning.
·
The pre-operational stage
This is the second stage when the child for the first time, discovers rules and principles of how
things work. In other words, the child has the primary or initial information about the working
of the things that he sees around him. It is above from learning just through senses.
·
The concrete operational stage
This is the third stage when his reason and logic develops and he learns by reasoning. This
stage combines the information gathered from the previous two stages and the child is able to
develop his own explanation of the things.
·
The formal operational stage
This is the most developed and the last stage of development where the child is able to learn by
abstraction. In other words, the child is able to draw conclusions about working of things, and
phenomena using his own ability to associate ideas, perceive, think, and explain the
happenings.
Jean Piaget therefore studied psychological functions in terms of learning and in terms of development.
This means that he focused on how learning and development takes place. In other words, he also focused
on the functions rather than structure of psychological phenomena. He is therefore included in the
functionalist school as a European functionalist
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology