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Radio News Reporting and Production

ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation

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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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LESSON 44
ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA
Obligations of Media to the Society
Media should be:
Truthful
Accurate
Objective
Relevant
Free but self-regulated
Following the agreed codes of Ethics and Professional Standards
Domain of Freedom of Media
Article -19 of the constitution reads:
"There shall be freedom of press (media). It will however be subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the
interest of the glory of Islam, or the Integrity, Security or Defense of Pakistan, or any part of it, friendly
relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality or in relation to the contempt of court,
defamation or incitement to an offence."
It is quite obvious from the above-written article of the constitution of Islamic republic of Pakistan that the
media is free in Pakistan but it must follow certain lines of responsibility that it owes to the religion,
country, people, and the culture it belongs to.
Analyzing the article we come across the following set of purposes of this article:
1)
The protection of Islamic values
2)
The respect of all the sects of Islam
3)
Integrity, Security and Defense of Pakistan
4)
The respect of Ideology of Pakistan
5)
The respect of Minorities, their beliefs, their rituals
6)
The protection of social Norms and Values
7)
To respect and honor the Foreign Policy of Pakistan
8)
Maintenance of Decency and avoidance of Vulgarity
8)
The honor of the Courts must be protected
9)
Defamation of any individual or group of persons is to be avoided to safeguard their repute,
honour, and respect.
Contempt Of Court
Lord Russell's Definition
"Any act done or writing published calculating to bring a court, or judge of a court, into contempt, or to
lower his authority is a contempt of court. Further, any act done or writing published calculated to obstruct
or interfere with the due course of justice, or the lawful process of the courts is a contempt of court."
Situations of Contempt of Court
The following are the situations in which a media person or organization has to face the case of the
contempt of court.
1) The competency of a judge is challenged.
2) Honesty of judge is challenged.
3) Comments on the proceedings of a pending criminal or civil case affecting the judge, or parties, or
witnesses.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
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4) Comments affecting, making or shaping the public opinion for or against a party to the case in the
court.
Defamation
Defamation may be defined as:
"The publication or broadcasting of a statement which tends to lower a person or a registered company in
the estimation of right-thinking members of society generally; or which tends to make them shun or avoid
that person."
Types of Defamation
There are two types of defamation.
Libel
Slander
Libel
A libel consists of a defamatory statement or representation in permanent form, i.e., in black and white.
Slander
If a defamatory meaning about a person or a registered company is conveyed by spoken words or gestures,
it is slander.
Defamation in case of Radio
1) The defamation is slander if the broadcast is without script.
2) The defamation is libel if the broadcast is made from a written script or recorded tape.
Who can be defamed?
1) A living person can be defamed.
2) A corporation, firm, organization, company, partnership that is registered with the government.
Who cannot be defamed?
1) A dead person.
2) An illegal company.
Elements of Defamation
The following are the elements of defamation:
·
The words must be defamatory.
·
The words must refer to the plaintiff, i.e., the injured party or person.
Interpretation of Defamatory Word
Words must be understood in a defamatory sense whether or not believed in by the listeners.
Defenses of Defamation
The ways how a journalist or a news organization can avoid the charge of defamation are as under:
1. Justification or truth
The reporter or the news organization has to prove that the defamatory statement is based on truth.
2. Fair comment
The reporter or the news organization has to prove that:
1) The defamatory words are in the interest of the public.
2) The defamatory words have been put on air without any malicious intention.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production