ZeePedia
History and Systems of Psychology

ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing

<< NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology >>
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 36
ERIKSON and MORENO
Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson was born in 1902 and he died in 1994. His contribution to psychology particularly relates to
how he portrayed the psychological development of a person. Erikson was not formally educated like the
vast majority of his psychodynamic colleagues. Although his parents pushed him for medical school,
Erikson saw himself as an artist and spent his youth wandering through Europe living the artist's life. Later
impressed with the psychoanalytical school, he started developing his own theories of personality
development.
He was influenced by Freud's description of psycho-sexual development but he thought that the
development of a person should be viewed as psychosocial development rather than psycho-sexual
development. This means that the development of a person is greatly influenced by the social environment
in which he lives rather than the influence of sexual development from which he goes through.
Erikson further asserted that the development of a person continues throughout his life. In other words,
whatever the stage of life is, may be infancy or adulthood, a person goes through series of changes caused
by the environment. He thought that each developmental stage requires a person to make new adjustments
and develop new patterns of social interaction.
According to Erikson, in this developmental journey a person passes through eight stages.
The eight stages are:
i. Trust vs. Mistrust
In first year of life, the child is suspicious, fearful. From birth to one year, children begin to learn the ability
to trust others based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s). If trust develops successfully, the child gains
confidence and security in the world around him and is able to feel secure even when threatened.
Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result in an inability to trust, and therefore a sense of fear about
the inconsistent world. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in
the world around them.
ii. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt.
From the age of one to three years, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their
mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc. If
children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more
confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world. If children are criticized, overly controlled,
or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive,
and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt
in their own abilities.
iii. Initiative vs. Guilt
About age three to six, children assert themselves more frequently. They begin to plan activities, make up
games, and initiate activities with others. If this opportunity is given, children develop a sense of initiative
and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is suppressed,
either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others
and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative.
iv. Industry vs. Inferiority
From six years to puberty, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. They initiate
projects, see them through the view of completion, and feel good about what they have achieved. During
this time, teachers play an increased role in the child's development. If children are encouraged and
80
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve
goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, and is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel
inferior, doubting his own abilities and therefore he may not reach his potential.
v. Identity vs. Role Confusion
During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood is most important. Children are becoming
more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc.
During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome
of their explorations. This sense of `who they are' can be hindered, which results in a sense of confusion
about themselves and their role in the world.
vi. Intimacy vs. Isolation
Going through the young adulthood we begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore
relationships leading toward longer commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful
completion can lead to comfortable relationships, a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a
relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and
sometimes depression.
vii. Generativity vs. Self absorption
During middle adulthood, we establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families
and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. We give back to society through raising our
children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By
failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive.
viii. Integrity vs. Despair
As we grow older and become senior citizens, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a
retired person. It is the time when we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if
we see ourselves as leading a successful life. If we see our lives as unproductive, we feel guilt about our
pasts, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals; we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair
often leading to depression and hopelessness.
The first four stages relate to development of the child and the last four with development of the adult.
Erikson believed that depending upon each stage of development a person must be viewed and understood
differently
J.L. Moreno
Dr. Jacob Levy Moreno was born on 18 May 1889 and he died on 14 May 1974. He was a leading
psychiatrist, theorist and educator. He is the founder of Psychodrama, Sociometry and one of the pioneers
of Group Psychotherapy. He studied medicine, mathematics, and philosophy at the University of Vienna,
becoming an M.D. in 1917.
He was inspired by Freud but severely criticized his theory and method, because he thought Freud gave so
much emphasis on individual's life and ignored group influences on him. He also thought that Freud
ignored behavior and concentrated on thoughts. He was of the view that mental disease was due to lack of
spontaneity. And that the mental disease was a reflection of man's social and familial relationships. He
thought it could be relieved/cured by increasing spontaneity in a person and by providing a person an
opportunity where he could relive his familial and social situation.
Moreno developed the technique of "Psychodrama" to achieve those two purposes. Psychodrama consists
of:
Stage
It is the setup in which the analysis is performed.
81
img
History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
A director
The psychiatrist acts as the director who conducts the drama.
Protagonist
The protagonist is the central character around which the drama revolves.
Audience
Audiences are the people who witness the drama.
Role playing
Role playing refers to the performance of various acts in the drama.
Role reversal
Role reversal refers to the exchange of roles between characters of the play. Each character plays the role of
another so that he may get familiar with the intricacies of the other role.
All of the techniques and processes of psychodrama demand creativity from the protagonist. Creativity
increases spontaneity leading to mental health. Moreno also developed a number of techniques to measure
group phenomena. This he called "Sociometry." Group phenomenon or sociometry refers to the behavior
of individual in group situations and overall behavior of the group. Sociometry had very profound effect on
such modern subjects as Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management.
82
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology