Human Relations

ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 40
To work according to the principles is considered a commendable attribute. It is usually said "he is a man of
principles". When this is said it attaches some credibility to the person.
Ethics prescribe and proscribe certain behaviour under specified conditions designed to preserve and
promote the accountability and integrity of workers. Professional ethics can be understood as the rules of
conduct that translate the profession's characteristic ideals, or ethos, into everyday practice. (Cartel &
Denhardt, 1989)
Ethics may also be defined as a set of standards that help to determine the difference between right or wrong. An ethical
decision requires deciding on what action or behaviour is right or wrong. The character of the employees
and the employers is the reflection of their values. The character traits that help people make ethical
decisions develop over time. It is expected that consistency and persistency lies in their behaviour.
Influence of Culture
Work ethics are considered as the control on the behaviour of the workers under certain conditions. The
ethical standards of the workers are molded by their social and historical traditions. The cultural
environment determines ethical conduct and standards.
The ultimate standard of conduct for the workers is the realization of organizational goals along with
personal and social interests.
Modern work ethics
In the organizations, the rules and regulations are formulated to promote accountability and integrity.
Personal and organizational goals should be achieved following the principles and code of conduct of set by
the organizations. People shall be guided in their work and their professional conduct by a balanced
framework of values: democratic, professional, ethical and people-oriented
Democratic values
Employees shall give honest and impartial advice and make all information relevant to a decision available
to the administration. Employees shall loyally implement administrative decisions.
Professional values
Serving with competence, excellence, efficiency, objectivity and impartiality comes under professional
values. Employees shall Endeavour to ensure the proper, effective and efficient use of organizational
Ethical values
Acting at all times in such a way as to uphold the social and organizational trust. Workers should perform
their duties and arrange their private affairs so that organizational confidence and trust is maintained. If a
conflict arises between the private interests and the organizational work, the conflict should normally be
resolved in favour of the organization.
People values
It should always be remembered that the thrust of human relations lies in the courtesy and respect.
Demonstrating respect, fairness and courtesy in dealings with fellow workers is as important as other values.
Respect for human dignity and the value of every person should always inspire personal conduct and
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Managers should conduct ethical behaviour
An organizational environment where high standards of conduct are encouraged by providing appropriate
incentives for ethical behaviour, such as adequate working conditions and effective performance
assessment, has a direct impact on the daily practice of ethical standards.
Managers have an important role in this regard by providing consistent performance and conduct. The
managers must show the traits of honesty, integrity, fairness, responsibility, respect for others, hard work,
positive attitude through their behaviour.
Performance of the workers is assessed through the workers' ethical conduct. If they follow the principles
and code of conduct of the organizations, they are given rewards to promote and encourage their
behaviour. Some of the organizations pronounce their employees as `employee of the month' or `employee
of the year'.
Why Be Concerned About Business Ethics?
People are motivated by both self-interest and moral commitments, so you have to watch out both
carefully. The organizations that follow ethical values always have long term goals, instead of short term
A good ethics reputation can enhance business.
Many unethical acts are illegal leading to financial loss and punishment. High ethics can increase quality of
work life. The organizations working for long term goals develop goodwill and trust with the passage of
time and people like to work with such organizations.
Common ethical problems
Being ethical isn't easy for many reasons including the complexity of ethical decisions and working in an
unethical environment. Ethical violations by rank-and-file workers are widespread, particularly with respect
to lying. Those who are in authority usually do not follow ethical principles or values. Sometimes it becomes
difficult to work according to your principles and code of conduct. Some workers feel that they are not
being treated fairly. Criterion for promotion should be the performance rather than personal likes or
dislikes. Gender-based harassment is also observed at some work places which is illegal and unethical.
Many a times, conflict of interest arises. Under such circumstances you should make decisions in the
interest of the organization.
Denhardt, G. K. & Carton, L.B. (1989). The Management of Ideals: A Political perspective on Ethics.
Public administration review, Vol. 49, No 2.
Dubrin, A.J. (2005). Human Relations: Career and Personal Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People