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Radio News Reporting and Production

DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama

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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
LESSON 39
DRAMA
Drama is a literary form involving actions and dialogues written for actors to perform. It is a Greek word
meaning "action", drawn from the "to act".
Types of drama in terms of Mood
The following are different types of drama in terms of Mood:
·
Tragedy
·
Comedy
·
Satires
Types of drama in terms of Making
The following are different types of drama in terms of Making:
·
Solo plays
·
Series
·
Serial
·
Soap opera
Solo plays
These are individual plays produced for special occasions, days, etc., such as Independence Day, Eid days,
anniversaries of national heroes, etc.
Series
A series contains different plays with different sub titles under the same main title portraying different
shades of the same theme.
Serial
Serial contains one story that goes on to many episodes. Every episode has its own climax and the last
episode carries the chief climax that leads to anti climax.
Soap
Soap drama actually presents family problems and conspiracies with no definite main character; rather every
character, by and large, is equally important.
Components of Drama
The following are the components of a drama:
·
Characters
·
Dialogues
·
Screenplay
Components of Drama Script
The components of drama script are as under:
Plot ­ the story of the drama that contains the turns & twists is called the plot of the drama.
Expose` ­ the introduction of characters is called the expose`.
Growth ­ the establishment of conflict between different characters.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
Climax ­ it is the peak point of the conflict.
Anti-climax ­ it is where the conflicts amongst the characters are resolved.
Radio Drama
Radio drama is a form of drama which is intended to be broadcast on radio. With no visual component,
radio drama depends on Dialogues, Music and Sound Effects to help the listener imagine the story.
Components of Radio Drama
The components of radio drama are as under:
Speech
Music
Sound Effects
Speech
Speech contains the following elements:
Dialogues
Monologue (soliloquy ­ a character's verbal communication to himself)
Music
Music in a radio drama can be included as under:
Background music ­ as situation demands
Change over music ­ marks the change of the scene
Sound Effects
The especially recorded sounds to establish a particular atmosphere are called sound effects. For instance,
Birds' chirping, typewriter's rattling, jackal's howling, cricket's chirping, chairs' dragging, water pouring into
glass, thunder clap followed by rain sound, Azaan.
Radio Drama Production
Getting drama written
First of all, the producer contacts to a drama writer to get it written. Drama may be thematic or
entertaining. The producer discusses the theme with the writer and asks him/her to develop a drama
portraying the theme.
Vetting
After the drama is written, producer vets the script. While vetting drama script a drama producer must be
careful regarding the following aspects:
Drama must not go against Religious Policy.
Drama must not go against National Policy.
Language used must not violate the set standards of the language to be employed while writing for
mass medium.
Length of the script so that it may not exceed the given time limit.
Copies of the script
Producer's copy that contains important cues, details of musical instruments that will go with the
situation, and the sound effects where they are needed.
Engineer's copy that contains all those details that does the producer's copy.
Actors' copy that does not contain any details which are needed from production point of view.
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Radio News, Reporting and Production ­ MCM515
VU
Characterization
The act of conceiving a character is called characterization. While selecting a voice for a certain character
following essentials a producer must keep forth:
The voice age of the actor that must correspond to the age of the character conceived by the writer.
Education of the character. Actor's tone, voice and accent must be in accordance of the character's
education that is established by the writer for that particular character.
Socio-cultural background of the character so that the accent of the actor may conform to the
character's accent.
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Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT RADIO IS:HISTORY OF RADIO, MARCONI –THE INVENTOR
  2. HISTORY OF RADIO:B.B.C. – 1922, Radio in Sub-Continent, PBC SERVICES
  3. OBJECTIVES OF BROADCASTING IN PAKISTAN:Information, Islamic ideology
  4. NEWS VALUES I:CONFLICT, PROGRESS, VICTORY AND DEFEAT
  5. NEWS VALUES II:TIMELINESS, PROXIMITY, NOVELTY, HUMAN INTEREST
  6. NEWS VALUES AND ELEMENTS OF NEWS:MISCELLANEOUS NEWS VALUES
  7. MEASURING THE IMPORTANCE OF NEWS:Intensity of an Event, NEWS STORY TYPES
  8. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES II:SIMPLE TYPES, ILLNESS, DEATH
  9. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES III:Conspiracy, Drug Trafficking, Lunar Months
  10. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES IV:COMPLEX NEWS, Forms of Government, Monarchy
  11. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES V:Education, Research, Religion
  12. TYPES OF NEWS STORIES VI:Lifestyles, Receptions, Entertainment
  13. SOURCES OF NEWS I:Network of Reporters, QUALITIES OF A REPORTER
  14. SOURCES OF NEWS II:MONITORING, NEWS/ PRESS RELEASE
  15. SOURCES OF NEWS III:National News Agencies, HARD NEWS, SOFT NEWS
  16. REPORTING:ORDER OF REPORTING, REPORTER’S QUALITIES, Well informed
  17. A SUCCESSFUL RADIO REPORTER:Briefing, Reporter’s Ammunition, Meeting Deadline
  18. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING I:Growth of Interpretative Reporting
  19. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING II:Factual Background, SPEECH STORY
  20. INTERPRETATIVE REPORTING III:FIRES & ACCIDENTS, CRIME STORIES
  21. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING I:Thalidomide Scandal, Watergate Scandal
  22. INVESTIGATIVE REPORTING II:Identification of the problem, INTERVIEW
  23. TYPES OF INTERVIEW:Hard News Interview, Informational Interview
  24. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW I:Comments and Opinion, Topic must be specific
  25. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD INTERVIEW II:Preparation of the Interview, Language
  26. RADIO NEWS GLOSSARY:Actuality, Cut, Voicer, Wrap, Hourly, Lead
  27. FUNDAMENTALS OF NEWS WRITING:Inverted Pyramided Style, Telling the Story
  28. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO I:Language
  29. FUNDAMENTALS OF WRITING NEWS FOR RADIO II:Complex numbers
  30. ESSENTIALS OF A NEWSCASTER:Authority, Credibility, Language, Pronunciation
  31. PRODUCTION AND PLANNING:Principals of Planning a Program
  32. PRODUCER & BUDGETING:Strengths of a Radio Program, Budgeting a Program
  33. JARGONS OF PRODUCTION (Continued):Frequency spectrum, Dead studio
  34. TYPES OF TALK:Qualification of a Talker, Essentials of a talk, Vetting a talk
  35. DISCUSSION:Controlled Discussion, Live Discussion, Current affairs
  36. DISCUSSION:Selection of the TopicKnowledge of the Topic, Narrowing down the topic
  37. RADIO FEATURE:Sound Effects, Narration, Dramatic Feature, Religion, Personalities
  38. RADIO DOCUMENTARY:Commentary, History, Persons, Things, Phenomena
  39. DRAMA:Solo plays, Series, Serial, Soap, Components of Drama
  40. SPECIAL AUDIENCE PROGRAM:Children’s Programs, Women’s programs
  41. SPORTS PROGRAM:Live Programs, Recorded Programs, Preparation of OB
  42. THE MUSIC I:Folk Music, Classical Music, Light Music, Pop Music
  43. THE MUSIC II:Classification of Raga In Terms Of Notes, Aado, Khaado
  44. ETHICS & LIMITATIONS OF MEDIA:Domain of Freedom of Media, Defamation
  45. RECAP:What Radio Is, Timeliness, Elements of news, Types of Reporting, Production