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TV News Reporting and Production

COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3

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LESSON 45
COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3
(TECHNICAL STORE, LIBRARY AND TRAFFIC)
RECAP OF THE COURSE
Lecture # 1
Creativity and idea generation for television
Importance of Television among other media
Other tools of Communication
Purposes of television
Picture is the base of Television Production
Phases in preparation of a TV programme
The functions and responsibilities of a Producer
Video Procedures/ Production
TV Production Crew Positions
Future Trends-High Definition Television
Lecture # 2
Pre-requisites of a Creative Producer/Director
Creative / Innovative /Analytical / Logical / Critical / Deep observation / Vast study/ Visualization
power / Decision power / Sense of humour / Sense of proportion / Acute conclusion / Common sense /
Aesthetic sense / Great exposure / Editorial judgment / Self starter / Initiative / Team leader /
Forbearance / Tolerance / Practical experience / General knowledge /Courage / Confidence / Bravery /
Time management / Accuracy / Precision / Conviction / Consistency / Ethics / Communication /
Motivation / Determination / Patience / Fairness in controversy / Disinclined / Unbiased / Unprejudiced
/ Investigative / Informative / Inquisitive / Objectivity / Subjectivity / Technically sound / Pleasant
personality / Command and control
Lecture # 3
Refining an idea for Production
Ingredients for the presentation of an idea before the execution of a programme
Title
Name of the programme
Type
Form of programme
Language
Mode of communication
Genre
Kind of contents
Frequency
Rate of telecast
Duration
Length of time
Target audience
Potential viewers
Format
Arrangement of sequences
Theme
Central idea
Title
Type
Drama
Drama serial /Drama series/Soap serial/Mini-serial/Sit-com situational comedy/Long play/Tele-
film/Short film
Magazine Shows
Talk show/Music show/Celebrity show/Health show/Commerce show/Road show
Game show/Cooking show/Beauty show
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Documentary
Historical /Informative/Investigative/Docu-drama
Specific audience programming
Religious  programmes/Women  programmes/Children  programmes/Sports  programme/News
programmes/Current
affairs
programmes/Views
and
comments
programmes/Analytical
programmes/Opinion formation programmes
Language
International as English, Arabic, French/National as Urdu, Persian, Chinese/ Provincial as Punjabi,
Sindhi, Pashtu, Balochi/Regional as Saraiki, Hindko, Barahvi, Gujrati
Genre
Comedy/Tragedy/Action/Thriller/Adventurous/Romantic/Fiction/Historical/Epic/
Science
fiction/Fantasy
Frequency
Daily/Weekly/Fortnightly/Monthly/Quarterly/Biannually/Annually
3 minutes/5 minutes/10-15 minutes/25 minutes/50 minutes/90 minutes
Target audience
General public /Youth /Students /Kids /children /Women /Senior citizens /Formers /Peasants/
Businessmen /Industrialist /Traders /Educationist /Lawyers /Doctors /Workers /Researchers
Format
It is arrangement of the programme and the order of the appearance of performers, artists or the
participants.
Theme
It is the central idea of any programme, normally called the one-liner in the telecast industry.
Lecture # 4
Concept Development
Concept/A general notion/A conception/A comprehension/A construct/A thing formed in the mind/A
directly conceived or intuited object of thought/An idea of something formed by mentally combining all
its characteristics or particulars/A general idea derived or inferred from specific instance or occurrence
The concept development is next step; a producer has to take after generation of an idea and before its
execution. Before we take concept in the scenario of production, let's discuss the concept in mass media
research perspective.
Construct
A construct is the combination of two concepts. For example "Mass" is a concept, "Media" is again a
concept and the "Mass Media" is a construct which give a third meaning as a whole phrase. These
concepts in researched studies are measure as variables.
Variable
It is the changing value of quantity or quality of a thing or concept is called variable.
Independent variable
It is the variable whose value is independent to change. For example "speed" is an independent variable.
Media exposure may be the other example.
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Dependent variable
It is the variable whose value is dependent to change. For example "distance" is a dependent variable.
Socialization from media may be the other example. A dependent variable is dependent on the
independent variable.
Intervening variable
It is the variable that effects the relation of the independent and dependent variable. For example in `
"quality of the road" is an intervening variable. Tune-in time may be the other example.
Extraneous variable
It is the variable, which does not directly influence the relation of independent and dependent variable.
It is not as pertinent as an intervening variable.
Types of research
Pure and applied research is Scientific or laboratory research.
Descriptive research is Social or library research.
Qualitative research deals with the qualitative variables
Quantitative research deals with the quantitative variables
Lecture # 5
Research and reviews
What is research?
Research is constant navigation to know the truth/Continuous effort to dig out facts/an endeavour to find
something new/Making new interpretation of existing knowledge/Research is an addition to already
present knowledge.
According to a mass media research expert Kerlinger, "It is systematic, controlled, critical and
empirical investigation of hypothetical propositions about presumed relations among natural
phenomena."
Research Procedure
Selection of a problem
Research question
Making hypothesis
Review of available literature
Experimental design
Research suppliers
Data collection
Analysis and interpretation of data
Presentation of research
Replication
Lecture # 6
Script Writing
The plot of any story, drama, novel, or play has following basic ingredients
Introduction
beginning
Complication
development of complications
Culmination
climax of conflict
Solution
resolution of issues
Conclusion
ending
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A good script has following components:-
Purpose
to justify its viewer-ship
Simplicity
to make it look true
Familiarity
to be directly communicable
Elements of a successful story
Extraordinary swiftness
Economy of words
Rapid development of situation
Promise of future development
Immediate attention
Powerful atmosphere
Striking characterization
Intriguing unusual setting
Extremely usual setting
Do's in script writing
Opening should be catchy to hold the audience
The style, diction and contents should introduce the play
Logical development of the story is necessary
Tempo to be fast.
Planned forward action.
Element of suspense is vital.
Surprise grabs the attention.
Language should be used according to situation and story.
Definite ending is a must for a story.
All problems to be solved in the end.
All characters accounted for what they have done.
A tragic or unhappy ending may be satisfactory if a moral can be deduced.
Policy matters to be dealt carefully.
Don'ts in script writing
Profanity and blasphemy
Vulgarity and obscenity
Belittling of any race or caste
Criticism on any religion or sect
Physical deformities not to be made humorous.
Crime, murder and suicide to be discouraged
Degrading any colour or creed
Use of poor grammar
Offending humour
Offensive statements
Too talky script
Unintentional interruption to be avoided
Words with multiple meanings to be shunned
Characters
Actor-proof script
Effects
Length
Manuscript
Submitting the manuscript
Script Paper
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Camera Shot Sheet
Editing Log
Storyboard
Fax Request
Equipment Reservation Form
Lecture # 7
Pre-production phase
There are two kinds of productions technically and both require different prerequisites in pre-production
phase.
Indoor production
Outdoor production
Director as producer
The Director is called Producer in TV production as s/he handles the financial matters along with all
other issues regarding programme. For any indoor or outdoor production the first thing is to prepare a
budget.)
There are certain things a Producer has to plan before any production, which include:-
Talent
Electronic News Gathering (ENG)
Characters or performers
Storyboard
Outdoor Production
Reconnaissance
Travelling expanses
Unforeseen expenditures
Programme Budget Proposal (PBP)
Programme Budget Estimate (PBE)
Essentials of PBE
Talent fee
Script fee
Research fee
Transportation
Logistics
Accommodation
Unforeseen expanses
Indoor Production
The requirements for indoor productions are different than that of outdoor productions, it
include:
Set designing
Properties
Set designer
Lighting director
Cameraman
Editor
Director
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The director should aim at audience;
To develop dislike for what is unfair and untrue
To develop disgust for which is cheap and substandard
To develop indifference for which is trivial and meaningless
To develop enthusiasm for what is fine true and important
The director for oneself should develop the habit of;
Self-control
Self-respect
Self-reliance
Studying the script
While studying a script a director should:
Digest the script to get the real mood and feeling.
See that the script is approximately of right length
Suggest small changes if required to better the performance
Hear the whole script, as one reading is not enough
Lecture # 8
Selection of required Content and talent
The casting committee is concerned of two things:
What comes out at the screen?
What happens in the minds of viewer?
The director watches following things for the flexibility of performance:-
Displaying an understanding of lines
Varying speed according to material
Expressing emotions without shouting
Giving expressions, stresses and pauses
Throwing cue lines to co-artists
Delivering the dialogue in true spirit
Having decided upon the selection of the artists, the producer should fix the time of rehearsals,
which include:-
Simple rehearsal
Dry rehearsal
Camera rehearsal
Full rehearsal
Final rehearsal
It is good idea to cut a script down for required number of rehearsals and many factors enter in to
determination of answers;
The script itself
The ability of the artists
The amount of time
The degree of difficulty
The efficiency of director
Run Through
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First Rehearsal
Second Rehearsal
Talent
Forms
Talent Release Form
Lecture # 9
Programme planning
Outdoor Production Checklist
Camera/Neck microphone/Hand microphone/Cable microphone/Cordless microphone /Baby light/Kit
light/Sun gun/Monitor/Reflector/Tapes/Battery charger/Transport/Make up/Costumes/Confirmation of
participants/Location management/For outstation recordings/ Tour authorization/ Accommodation/
Boarding and lodging
Technical staff required
Director/Cameraman/Light man/Boom operator/Driver
Indoor Production Checklist
Studio requisition/Three Cameras/Neck microphone/Hand microphone/Cable microphone/Cordless
microphone/Set  installed/Lighting/Panel/switcher/Camera  control  unit/Audio  console/Cassette
Recorders/CassettePlayers/FunctionalMonitors/Tapes/Makeup/Properties/Wardrobe/Costumes/
Confirmation of participants/Gate passes
Technical staff required
Director/Cameramen/Lighting director/Light men/Boom operator/Camera Control Unit (CCU)
engineer/Audio engineer/Recording Engineer/Set designer/Studio hands/Floor managers
Outdoor Broadcast (OB)
Electronic Field Production (EFP)
Talk  shows/Live  coverage/Music  show  or  concert/Mega  shows/Award  ceremonies/Sports
events/Approval of authority for the venue/Security management/Refreshment of artists and
staff/Continuities
Continuity of dialogue/ Situation/Dress/Makeup
Assistant Director
Floor Director
Audio Engineer
Camera Operators
Videotape Operators
Technical Director
Production Assistant (CG Operator)
Lecture # 10
Production phase
Floor plan
Traditional set/Contemporary set/Lighting set/Black screen set/Single screen set/Two-screen set/Three-
screen set
Non-representational set
News/Interviews/Talk shows/Forums/Political discussions/Analysis and opinion/Religious programmes
Representational set
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Drama/Show/Documentary/Celebrity show/Magazine show/Science show
Children show/Women show
Abstract sets
Musical concerts/Mega shows/Extravaganza/Variety show
Design elements
Line/Shape/Texture/Space/Size
Work procedure of design department
Producer designer discussion/Planning/Concept/Floor plan/Producer's approval/Budgeting/Purchase
process/Property store/Carpenter workshop/Welding if any/Painting workshop/Erection of set in
studio/Set decoration/Recording/Dismantling after recording/Make up techniques/Essentials of Make
up/General treatment/Nose treatment/Eye treatment
Lecture # 11
Camera Work
Camera functions
Movement of lens of camera
Zoom in /Zoom out/Focus/Defocus
Movement of camera itself
Pan right/Pan left/Tilt up/Tilt down
Movement of camera with tripod
Dolly in/Dolly out/Track right/Track left
Use of crane/Jib/Wide-angle lens/Fish-eye lens
Types of shots
Extreme close up (ECU)/Big close up (BCU)/Close up (CU)/Medium close up/bust shot
(MCU)/Medium shot (MS)/Medium long shot (MLS)/Long shot (LS)/Very long shot (VLS)/Top or
High angle shot (looking downwards)/Low angle shot (looking upwards)/Two shot (can be
CU/MCU/MS)/Over the shoulder shot (OTS)/Moving subject walking into space/Differential shot
Video Equipment
Studio Cameras
The Camera
Lens:
View Finder:
The Camera Mount
Movement Camera Operation
Before the Shoot
During the Shoot
After the Shoot
Lecture # 12
Light and Audio
Types of cameras
Handy camera/ENG camera/Full facility camera/Digital camera/XD camera/Beta camera
Models in use
PD 150/PD 170/D 350/D 390/D 250 P/D 35 P/16 MM/35 MM/70 MM
Types of tapes/disks
Video/VTR/U-matic/Beta/DVC Pro/DV cam/Mini DV/VHS/VCD/DVD/Audio/Magnetic tape/CD/
DAT/Importance of sound in TV
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Use of microphone
When you choose a microphone, you should know four things.
What type it is?
What are its directional characteristics?
What does it sound like?
What it looks like?
Types of microphones
According to technique
Moving coil or dynamic/Ribbon/Capacitor or condenser
According to direction
Omni or Multi-directional (picking sound all around)/Bi-directional (Front and rear)/Uni-directional
(from front only)
According to usage
Neck microphone/Hand microphone/Cordless neck microphone/Cordless hand microphone/Cable neck
microphone/Cable hand microphone/Boom handy (outdoor)/Boom on tripod (indoor)
According to programme
Drama/Talk show/Music/Magazine show/Documentary
Television Sound: The Basics
Loudness
Frequency
The Frequency-Loudness Relationship
Listening Conditions bass and treble
Room Acoustics
Microphones
Dynamic Microphones
Condenser/Capacitor Microphones
Ribbon Mics
Boundary Effect Mics
Contact Mics
Directional Characteristics
In microphones there are three basic directional categories:
Omni-directional
Bi-directional
Unidirectional
Cardioids
Super-cardioids
Hyper-cardioids and Lobar
Shotgun Mics
Parabolic Mics
Using Off-Camera Microphones
Microphone Booms
Hanging Microphones
Hidden Microphones
Phase Cancellation
Place mics as close as possible to sound sources
Use directional mics
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Turn down mics any time they are not needed
Carefully check and vary distances between the sound sources and multiple mics to reduce or
eliminate any cancellation effect (A speaker's mic should be placed at one-third or less the distance of
the next nearest mic.)
Lecture # 13
Day of Recording/Production
Pre-requisites for Indoor Production
Studio requisition/Planning schedule/Studio facilities/Three Cameras/Microphones
Set  installed/Any  change  in  required/Lighting/Panel/switcher/Camera  control  unit/Audio
console/Cassette Recorders/Cassette Players/Functional Monitors/Plasma/Telephones /Tapes/Make
up/Properties/Wardrobe/Costumes/Confirmation of participants/Pick and drop/Gate passes/Technical
staff/Rehearsals
Producer during recordings:
Do not fatigue the crew with odd moves
Do not burden the artist with retakes
Do not spoil the mood of recording
Do not be panic while at work
Camera Moves and mechanism of recording
Noting on script or register
Communication during recording
Talk back microphone for the compare/anchor/host
Studio microphone to address the audience
Head phone to communicate with cameramen
Tele-light
Pre-requisites for single camera Outdoor Production
Single
Camera/Microphones/Lights/Monitor/Reflector/Tapes/Battery
charger/Transport/
Make
up/Costumes/Confirmation of participants/Location management/For outstation recordings/Tour
authorization/Accommodation/Boarding and lodging
Floor management
The  production  staff/Producer/Director/Assistant  director/Lighting  director/Designer/Production
assistant/The production crew/Cameraman/Audio engineer/Audio technicians/Video technicians/Floor
manager/Studio hands/Studio supervisor/Switcher/Recording engineer/The Control Room/The studio
floor
The day of recording
Research /Scriptwriting /Dramatization /Screenplay /Storyboard /Rehearsals /Dialogue delivery /Accent
/pronunciation /Teleprompter machine
Video Tape Recording
VT Controls/Patching/Monitoring/Recording/Audio Equipment/Remote Start/ Timing/ Equalization /
Mix Minus/Monitoring/ Developing an Ear/Audio Cart/Compact Disc Player
Auxiliary Equipment
Intercom
Videotape
Lecture # 14
Linear editing and NLE
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Film is a director medium.
Theatre is an actor medium.
Radio is a speaker medium.
Television is a producer medium.
Episode/Scene/Take
Editing/Player 1/Player 2/Recorder
Types of Editing
Linear Editing
Non-linear Editing (NLE)
Editor
Production Switcher
Lecture # 15
Mixing and Uses of effects
Mixing and Uses of effects is to beautify a production. It fills the colours in the programme with the use
of animations, graphics, windows, brackets and effects like, Zoom out, Zoom in, Page turn over, Dip to
black, Fade in, Fade out, Dissolve, Cross fade, Wipe, Swap. Moreover Colour tone, Title, End credits,
Breaks, Bumpers, Scroll, Strips and Superimpositions like Names, Callers, Phone numbers, Email,
Website is also done by mixing, as well as Promo and Recap are also prepared
Music is also adjusted in by audio mixing by keeping music in fore ground, mid ground or background.
Choice of music is exercised in it and Sound levelling
is done.
Lecture # 16
Selection of the News
What is News?
News is some thing or matter new, fresh, unusual, unique, strange and exclusive.
It may be defined as accurate fact or idea that will interest a large number of viewers. In a news
strangeness, abnormality, unexpectedness and nearness of and event, all add to interest in the news
story.
The American College Dictionary defines news as "A report of any recent event or situation and as the
report of event published in a newspaper"
According to Lord Northcliffe' "if a dog bites a man it is no news but if a man bites a dog it's news."
News is in fact a communication between human beings from the earliest period of human civilization.
News is information about an event, some development plan, and movement of important persons as it
is said, "big names make big news."
Qualities of news
Accurate /Balanced /Truthful /Recent /Exact /Perfect /Objective /Impartial /Unbiased / Disinclined/
Concise /Short /Brief /To the point /Clear
Elements of news
Timeliness /Immediacy /Proximity /Consequence /Prominence /Suspense /Mystery /Oddity /Conflict
/Progress /Action /Interest /Human Emotions
News and Documentary Production
Twelve Factors in Newsworthiness
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Timeliness/  proximity/  exceptional  quality  /possible  future  impact/  prominence/  conflict
/ the number of people involved or affected/ consequence/ human interest/ pathos/ shock value/
titillation component
Lecture # 17
Writing of the News
How to write the news?
The inverted pyramid
Contents of news
What?
What happened? What is the event?
When?
When it occurred, at what time it took place?
Where?
The place, where the incident occurred.
Who?
The persons involved at that occasion.
Why?
The reason of that particular issue.
How?
The sequence of the event.
Lead/Intro/Credit line/Body text
Types of news according to contents
News based on facts
News based on statement
News based on action
Lecture # 18
Editing of the News
Editing and rewriting the news
Characteristics of good news
Process of editing news
Lecture # 19
Compilation of News Bulletin
Compiling a News Bulletin
Hard news/Soft news/Investigative report
Lecture # 20
Presentation of News Bulletin
Types of news telecast
Continued story
Lecture # 21
Making Special Bulletins
Trade/industry/Commerce/business/Agriculture/Sports/Show biz/Fashion /Music/ Drama/ Weather/
Educational/Religious/Health/Scientific/Food/Documentary/Investigation/ Youth/Women
Lecture # 22
Technical Codes, Terminology, and Production Grammar
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Creativity/Idea /Concept /Casting/Script or Screenplay/Research/Rehearsal/Cameraman /Frame
/Shot/Television
studio/Studio
Floor/Light
/Set
design/Survey
for
location/Microphone/Videotape/Camera Control Unit/Switcher/vision mixer/Panel /Audio Mixing
Console/Production control room/Video monitor wall/ Video editing/Non-linear editing/Video
camera/Electronic field production (EFP)/Electronic News Gathering/Teleprompter
Lecture # 23
Types of TV Production
The scriptwriter's command of dialogue
The researcher's in-depth knowledge
The actor's power of oratory
The performer's suitable expression,
The makeup artist's subtle touch
The lighting directors controlled shadows,
The set designer's environmental influence,
The cameraman's reflections,
The audio engineer's skill in blending music,
The mixing expert's sound effects,
The editor's presentational talent,
The producer's command and control
Magazine Shows
Talk show/Music show/Celebrity show/Health show/Commerce show/Road show/Game show/Quiz
show/Kids show/Fashion show/Women show/Cooking show/Beauty show/Reality show
Specific audience programming
Religious  programmes/Women  programmes/Children  programmes/Sports  programme/News
programmes/Current
affairs
programmes/Views
and
comments
programmes/Analytical
programmes/Opinion formation programmes
Genre
Comedy/Tragedy/Action/Thriller/Adventurous/Romantic/Fiction/Historical/Epic/Fiction
/Science
fiction/Fantasy
Lecture # 24
Drama and Documentary
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. It is derived from a Greek word
meaning "action" or "to do".
Drama
Drama serial /Drama series/Soap serial/Mini-serial/Sit-com situational comedy/Long play/Tele-
film/Short film
Documentary
Historical /Informative/Investigative/Docu-drama
Lecture # 25
Sources of TV News
SOURCES OF NEWS
Reporters/Correspondents/Monitoring/Press releases from public sector organizations/Press note from
the district management/Handout from DGPR and PID/Directorate General of Public Relations and
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Press Information Department/Media contacts/Opinion leaders/Politicians/Celebrities/Players/Media
icons/Press conferences/Media briefings/Important function,/ceremony, workshop, seminar or
symposium/Hospitals/Socialinstitutes/Policestation/Firebrigade/Jails/Courts/District offices/Educational
institutions/Chambers of commerce and industry/Banks State, Scheduled, Agriculture and
commercial/News agencies/Corporate sector/Public gathering/Web sources/News papers/Reporters
/Correspondents Monitoring /Press release /Press conference /National and International News
Agencies:
Lecture # 26
Functions of a Reporter
There are following functions of a television reporter:-
To cover the city events/To lead the production team/To make the news reports/To move into respective
beats/To go to press conferences/To attend the media briefings/To jot down the notes/To gather the
news/To dig out the news/To have liaison with PROs/To get the relevant documents/To write a news/To
rewrite a news/To edit a news/To make the quick decisions/To select a newsworthy occurrences/To
investigate the reasons of an incidents/To write down follow-up stories/To have acquaintance with
existing situations/To have general knowledge/To have time management/To be a team leader/To be
good at language/To follow press laws/To abide by code of ethics/To be socially responsible/To avoid
sensationalism/To have decision power.
Lecture # 27
Beats of Reporting
City reporter /Social reporters /Crime reporter /Political reporter /Court reporter /Health reporter
/Agricultural reporter/Religious reporter /Commerce reporter /Education reporter /Social reporter
/Show-biz reporter /Sports reporter /Women reporter /Youth reporter /Fashion reporter /District reporter
/Special reporter /Cultural reporter /Development reporter
Lecture # 28
Structure of News Department
Staff reports/Wire services/Feature syndicates/Handouts/Releases
City Editor /Beat Reporters /General assignment reporters/Managing Editor /Assistant Managing Editor
/Copy Editor /Managing Editor
Organization of a newspaper news room
Managing editor/City editor/Wire editor/City editor/Photographers/Reporters/Beat reporters/General
assignment reporters
Organization of a TV news room
News director/Executive producer/Assignment editor/
Producers/
Reporters/Editors
Organization of an online newsroom
Executive editor/Producer/Design managers/Producer/Editors/
Reporters/Design
managers/
Multimedia designers/ Web technicians
Lecture # 29
Electronic Field Production
Electronic field production (EFP)
A large video switcher, with an external digital video effects unit and several mix/effect equipment.
zoom lenses for the tripod-mounted "hard" cameras/ Several video recording and playback devices
such as VCRs or hard disk recorders. An audio mixing booth and a variety of microphones to
capture audio. Several miles of various types of cable.
Electronic News Gathering
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Microwave trucks seen transmitting. Modern news employs these trucks extensively. ENG is a
broadcasting (usually television) industry acronym which stands for Electronic News Gathering. It can
mean anything from a lone reporter taking a single camcorder or camera out to get a story to an entire
television crew taking a satellite truck on location to do a live report for a newscast.
Lecture # 30
Live Transmissions
Television studio
Studio floor
Decoration and/or sets
Cameras on pedestals
Microphones
Lighting rigs and the associated controlling equipment.
Several video monitors for visual feedback from the production control room
a small public address system for communication
A glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not
always possible
While a production is in progress, the following people work in the studio floor.
The on-screen "talent" themselves, and any guests - the subjects of the show.
A floor director, who has overall charge of the studio area, and who relays timing and other information
from the director.
One or more camera operators who operate the television cameras, though in some instances these can
also be operated from PCR using remote heads.
Possibly a teleprompter operator, especially if this is a news broadcast.
Production control room
Video monitor wall
Switcher
Master control room
Camera control units
Other facilities
Technical facilities
Telephone for live calls
Toll free numbers
SMS
Intercom
Computer for emails
Feed back
Opinion poll
Microphones
Talk back
Studio mic.
Headphones
Emergency kit
The tapes having pre-recorded programmes in case of emergency.
Generator facility
The alternate supply in case of electric power failure.
Elements of a television system
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An image source. This is the electrical signal representing the visual image, and may be from a camera
in the case of live images, a video tape recorder for playback of recorded images, or a film chain-
telecine-flying spot scanner for transmission of motion pictures (films).
A sound source. This is an electrical signal from a microphone or from the audio output of a video tape
recorder or motion picture film scanner.
A transmitter, which generates radio signals (radio waves) and encodes them with picture and sound
information.
An antenna coupled to the output of the transmitter for broadcasting the encoded signals.
An antenna to receive the broadcast signals.
A receiver (also called a tuner), which decodes the picture and sound information from the broadcast
signals, and whose input is coupled to the antenna.
A display device, which turns the electrical signals into visual images.
An audio amplifier and loudspeaker, which turns electric signals into sound waves (speech, music,
and other sounds) to accompany the images.
Lighting director (LD)
Lecture # 31
Qualities of a news producer
The following are the qualities and characteristics to be a news producer. Some of the qualities can be
inculcated, some can be improved, but still there are certain qualities, which are inborn, and a person
needs to have them to be a media man.
Determination / Knowledge / Awareness / Imaginative / Sense of humour and wit / Inquisitiveness/
Sharp an active/Curious /Observation /Social and sociable/Active and Dynamic /Well informed
/Courteous and well behaved /Intelligence /Specialized in the beat/Law-abiding/Qualified/Creative
and Innovative /Decisive
Lecture # 32
Duties of a news producer
Here are some of the things that a news producer does.
1.
Decides which stories are covered, who covers them, and how they are covered.
2.
Decides the order in which stories appear in the newscast
3.
Determines the amount of time each story is given.
4.
Writes copy for some stories.
5.
Integrates live reports into the newscasts.
Points to ponder while making a special bulletin
1.
Start strong as well begun is half done.
2.
Read and understand your source copy.
3.
Underline and circle the key facts.
4.
Think don't write yet.
5.
Write the way you talk.
6.
Have the courage to write simple.
7.
Refrain from wrong warm-ups.
8.
Limit a sentence to one line only.
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9.
Use short words and sentences.
10.
Utilize familiar words and combinations.
11.
Humanize your copy and localize it.
12.
Do not start with quotation or question.
13.
Put word or words you wish to stress at the end of your sentences.
14.
Omit needless words from your copy.
15.
It should highlight the best part.
16.
Don't just duplicate your source copy.
17.
When in doubt, leave it out.
18.
Don't raise questions, you do not answer.
19.
Read your copy loudly and if it does not sound good, rewrite it.
20.
The art of making news lies in rewriting what you have already written.
Lecture # 33
Assignment/News Editor
Reporters/Camera crew /News editor /News editor
Organization of a TV news room
News director/Executive producer/Assignment editor/  Producers/
Reporters/Editors
Writing  news  with  Accuracy/Fairness  and  Reliability/Factual  position/Nearness
and
proximity/Conflict/Suspense and mystery/Oddity and novelty/Prominence/Consequence
Lecture # 34
Shooting a News film
News Production
The Difference between ENG and EFP
Handling Controversial Subject Matter
Like Any Good Scout, Be Prepared
Video Journalists (VJs)
ENG Personnel
News producer
Segment producers
Executive producer
On-air director
ENG coordinator
Assignment editor
Lecture # 35
Preparation of special reports
Investigative journalism/Uncovering Truth/Reportage/Literary reportage /Investigative journalism /The
Investigation
Means reporters can use for their fact-finding:
Consequences
Breaking news/Format/Usage/Criticism/Know Your Story
Covering News vs. Making News
At Times, A Dangerous Profession
News and Politics
Lecture # 36
Interviews, vox pops and public opinions
Setting Up A Typical On-Location News Interview
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Reporter's Checklist
News Producer's Checklist
News Bias
INTERVIEW for Assessment or Information
Ego /Publicity/Money/Helpfulness
"off the record"/"Background/"deep background"/"attribution" /"a source in "/"burnt source"
Lecture # 37
Back Ground voice and voice over
Natural or Raw Sound /Sound Effects /The mixing /Voice-over
Types and uses of voice-over /As a character device /As a creative device/As an educational or
descriptive device/As a commercial device
Voice types and the cords themselves
Vocal registration (pitch, volume, timbre)
Sound/Equipment for dealing with sound
Lecture # 38
Spoken words and relevant visuals
Role and importance of audio in TV production, including audio mixing, analog and digital audio,
audio control devices, Audio Recording, Editing and Playback, Video Switchers and Special
Effects, Chroma Key and lip-synching i.e. synchronizing audio with the video.
Copying vs. Cloning/Converting Analog to Digital/Quantizing Error/Optimum Digital and Analog
Audio Levels/Digital Standards/Digital Audio Time Code/Audio Control Devices /Boards, Consoles,
and Mixers/Cue /Audition/Audio Mixer Controls/Level Control and Mixing/Using Audio from PA
Systems/Audio Recording, Editing and Playback
Cart Machines
Compact Discs
CD Defects and Problems
Automatic Error Correction
Audio Recording, Editing and Playback
DATs (Digital Audio Tapes) are capable of audio quality that exceeds what's possible with CDs.
RDAT (recordable digital audiotape) is designed for professional applications, as are the very high
quality ADAT machines (types I and II).
DAT Time Code
Computer Hard Drives
IC and PC Card Recorders
RAM Audio Recorders
The I-Pod Era
Audio Editing Systems
Video Switchers and Special Effects
Chroma Key
Software-Based Switchers and Effects
Lecture # 39
Talk shows, forums and Discussion Programmes
Basic techniques to be followed in talk shows Interviewer will introduce the guest and ask
question which will also tend to introduce him.
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1. It is not bad plan to ask some rather light, frivolous questions that may start the programme with
a spurt of humour, for this put the interviewee at ease and please the viewers.
2. It is essential that there be no pauses of any length, consequently the person who is doing the
interviewing must be alert to discover the leads in the answers he receives.
3. First few minutes will be devoted to less serious discussion in order to brighten the subject and
to encourage the interviewee to articulate comfortably.
4. There is a tendency to allow the interview to become argumentative but this should not be
avoided because it makes the interviewer express his ideas, which are not of importance.
5. The interviewer must remember that he is not interviewing himself. His job is to ask stimulating
questions, not to supply the answers; to bring out the interviewee's personality not of his own.
6. Do not try to influence the guest by leading questions. The person who is important enough to
be interviewed must have something interesting enough to appeal the viewers.
7. Try to dig down and disclose the person off guard; by that it is meant that there should be
revelation  not the exposure.
8. The host should have the general knowledge so that he can ask good and intelligent questions
about the relevant field of the guest and his interest.
9. Most of the questions should be of such nature as to require more that "yes" or "no" answers,
however interviewee must not be forced to give too lengthy replies.
10. It is permissible for the anchor to raise his hand and interrupt the speaker if he gets started on an
oration or a long speech.
11. If some definite topic is to be discussed, the questioner must strive to keep the speaker talking
about the topic and lead him back to subject if necessary.
12. The talk must be natural and conversational. Mild laughter may be heard but it is not advisable
for the announcer to laugh too heartily at his own comments.
13. Repetition in style of questions should be avoided such as starting questions with the word
"well" or "I see" or "okay" and "fine" after each answer.
Lecture # 40
Functions of various departments of a TV set up
General Manager /Sales department /Engineering Department/Production Department /News
Department/Administrative Department Sales/Entertainment/Owned and operated station /Affiliated
Relations /News/Sports /Standard /Operations
Infrastructure or organizational set up and Working of a TV channel
Human Resources or Administration & Personnel Department/Programmes Department/News
Department/Current
Affairs
Department/Sports
Department/International
Relations
Department/Engineering Department/Training Courses/Marketing/Information Technology/Finance
Department/Sub-Departments
Lecture # 41
Programmes department
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Season or Series/"show" or "programme/Program content/Television series by genre
Scripted entertainment
Unscripted entertainment
Informational
Development
Pilot/13 episodes/Production/Executive Producer/Director /Director of Photography /Editor
Distribution/Seasons/Series
Lists by genre or characteristic
Animated series /Awards shows /Celebrity Shows /Children's television shows /Comedies /Comedies
without laugh tracks /Cooking shows /Comedy-drama television series /Fantasy programs /Game shows
/News programs /Reality programs /Satirical news programs /Science fiction sitcoms /Sketch comedy
shows /Soap operas /Talk shows /Musical shows
Lecture # 42
News and Current Affairs
The programming & Scheduling
Getting TV programme on the air
TV broadcast programming
Scheduling strategies
Day-parting/Theme-ing/Stripping/Stacking/Counter-programming/Bridging/Tent-poling/Hammock-
ing/Cross-programming
Programming
Original Run or First Run
Syndication
Funding
Television has played a pivotal role in the socialization of the 20th and 21st centuries. There are many
social aspects of television that can be addressed, including:
1
Positive effects
2
Negative effects
3
Gender and television
4
Politics and television
5
Socializing children
6
Technology trends
7
Suitability for audience
8
Alleged dangers
9
Propaganda delivery
10
Educational advantages
Lecture # 43
Coordination among Different Departments of Television 1:
Forms and Documents
Programme Planning /ENG work schedule/EFP work schedule/VTR work schedule/Studio work
schedule/Actual Information Report/Props. and wardrobe Requirement list/Programme Budget
Estimate/Programme  Budget  Proposal/VTR  Log  book/Contract  Form/  Standards  /Censor
/Quality/Previewing  Pro-forma/Gate  Pass/Transport  Requisition/Duty  roaster  of  Camera
Department/Duty roaster of Camera Department/Schedule of ENG Store/Daily working schedule/Daily
Cue sheet/Advertisement sheet/Fix point chart
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Lecture # 44
Coordination among Different Departments of Television 2
Sub-departments and small sections
Department on international level /Department on national level Sub-Departments /Programmes
Department /Camera Department /Design Department /Make-up /Presentation Section
Other related sections
Script Section /Library /Panning Cell /Traffic Cell /ENG store /Technical Store /Properties store
/Wardrobe  /Studio  /Workshops  /Transport  /MCR  /VTR  /PCR/CRE  /AFU  /Graphics
/Presentation/Transmission /Duty Officer /Transmitter /Media Cell /Security/Exchange /Reception
/Canteen
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Table of Contents:
  1. CREATIVITY AND IDEA GENERATION FOR TELEVISION:Video Procedures
  2. PRE-REQUISITES OF A CREATIVE PRODUCER/DIRECTOR:SET-UP RESPONSIBILITIES
  3. REFINING AN IDEA FOR PRODUCTION:Drama, Magazine Shows, Documentary
  4. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:Variable. Pure and applied research
  5. RESEARCH AND REVIEWS:Research Procedure, Review of available literature
  6. SCRIPT WRITING:Elements of a successful story, Characters, Effects
  7. PRE-PRODUCTION PHASE:Indoor production, Outdoor production, Essentials of PBE
  8. SELECTION OF REQUIRED CONTENT AND TALENT:Camera rehearsal
  9. PROGRAMME PLANNING:Checklist, Electronic Field Production (EFP)
  10. PRODUCTION PHASE:Floor plan, Traditional set, Representational set, Design elements
  11. CAMERA WORK:Movement of lens of camera, Types of shots
  12. LIGHT AND AUDIO:Importance of sound in TV, Use of microphone, Loudness
  13. DAY OF RECORDING/PRODUCTION:Rehearsals,Point to ponder
  14. LINEAR EDITING AND NLE:Episode, Scene, Editing, Production Switcher
  15. MIXING AND USES OF EFFECTS:Live Sound Effects, ARROW STRIKING
  16. SELECTION OF THE NEWS:Elements of news, Timeliness, proximity
  17. WRITING OF THE NEWS:The inverted pyramid, Lead, Credit line
  18. EDITING OF THE NEWS:Characteristics of good news:Process of editing a news
  19. COMPILATION OF NEWS BULLETIN:Hard news, Soft news, Investigative report
  20. PRESENTATION OF NEWS BULLETIN
  21. MAKING SPECIAL BULLETINS:Agriculture, Show biz, Fashion, Drama
  22. TECHNICAL CODES, TERMINOLOGY, AND PRODUCTION GRAMMAR
  23. TYPES OF TV PRODUCTION:Magazine Shows, Specific audience programming
  24. DRAMA AND DOCUMENTARY:Documentary film, Defining documentary
  25. SOURCES OF TV NEWS:Reporters, Correspondents, Monitoring, News Agency
  26. FUNCTIONS OF A REPORTER
  27. BEATS OF REPORTING:City reporter, Social reporters, Show-biz reporter
  28. STRUCTURE OF NEWS DEPARTMENT:Beat Reporters, Online media
  29. ELECTRONIC FIELD PRODUCTION:Sports, Electronic news gathering
  30. LIVE TRANSMISSIONS:Studio floor, Switcher, Master control room, Camera control units
  31. QUALITIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER:Determination, Awareness, Sharp an active
  32. DUTIES OF A NEWS PRODUCER
  33. ASSIGNMENT/NEWS EDITOR:Accuracy, Fairness and Reliability, Conflict
  34. SHOOTING A NEWS FILM:The Influence of telecast News
  35. PREPARATION OF SPECIAL REPORTS:Uncovering Truth, Reportage
  36. INTERVIEWS, VOX POPS AND PUBLIC OPINIONS:INTERVIEW, Information
  37. BACK GROUND VOICE AND VOICE OVER:Natural or Raw Sound, Sound Effects
  38. SPOKEN WORDS AND RELEVANT VISUALS:Digital Audio, Quantizing Error
  39. TALK SHOWS, FORUMS AND DISCUSSION PROGRAMMES
  40. FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS OF A TV SET UP
  41. PROGRAMMES DEPARTMENT:Program content, Television series by genre
  42. NEWS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS THE PROGRAMMING & SCHEDULING
  43. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION
  44. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION - 2 SUB-DEPARTMENTS AND SMALL SECTIONS
  45. COORDINATION AMONG DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS OF TELEVISION 3