they were prosperous. Some places, like our Berkshire Newbury, became the
centres of considerable traffic and had little harbours filled with barges. Barge-
building was a profitable industry. Fly-boats sped along the surface of the canals
conveying passengers to towns or watering-places, and the company were very
bright and enjoyed themselves. But all are dead highways now, strangled by steam
and by the railways. The promoters of canals opposed the railways with might and
main, and tried to protect their properties. Hence the railways were obliged to buy
them up, and then left them lone and neglected. The change was tragic. You can,
even now, travel all over the country by the means of these silent waterways. You
start from London along the Regent's Canal, which joins the Grand Junction Canal,
and this spreads forth northwards and joins other canals that ramify to the Wash, to
Manchester and Liverpool and Leeds. You can go to every great town in England
as far as York if you have patience and endless time. There are four thousand miles
of canals in England. They were not well constructed; we built them just as we do
many other things, without any regular system, with no uniform depth or width or
carrying capacity, or size of locks or height of bridges. Canals bearing barges of
forty tons connect with those capable of bearing ninety tons. And now most of
them are derelict, with dilapidated banks, foul bottoms, and shallow horse haulage.
The bargemen have taken to other callings, but occasionally you may see a barge
looking gay and bright drawn by an unconcerned horse on the towpath, with a man
lazily smoking his pipe at the helm and his family of water gipsies, who pass an
open-air, nomadic existence, tranquil, and entirely innocent of schooling. He is a
survival of an almost vanished race which the railways have caused to disappear.
Much destruction of beautiful scenery is, alas! inevitable. Trade and commerce,
mills and factories, must work their wicked will on the landscapes of our country.
Mr. Ruskin's experiment on the painting of Turner, quoted in our opening chapter,
finds its realisation in many places. There was a time, I suppose, when the Mersey
was a pure river that laved the banks carpeted with foliage and primroses on which
the old Collegiate Church of Manchester reared its tower. It is now, and has been
for years, an inky-black stream or drain running between stone walls, where it does
not hide its foul waters for very shame beneath an arched culvert. There was a time
when many a Yorkshire village basked in the sunlight. Now they are great
overgrown towns usually enveloped in black smoke. The only day when you can
see the few surviving beauties of a northern manufacturing town or village is
Sunday, when the tall factory chimneys cease to vomit their clouds of smoke which
kills the trees, or covers the struggling leaves with black soot. We pay dearly for
our commercial progress in this sacrifice of Nature's beauties.
Whatever method can be devised for the prevention of the vanishing of England's
chief characteristics are worthy of consideration. First there must be the continued
education of the English people in the appreciation of ancient buildings and other
relics of antiquity. We must learn to love them, or we shall not care to preserve
them. An ignorant squire or foolish landowner may destroy in a day some priceless
object of antiquity which can never be replaced. Too often it is the agent who is to
blame. Squires are very much in the hands of their agents, and leave much to them
to decide and carry out. When consulted they do not take the trouble to inspect the
threatened building, and merely confirm the suggestions of the agents. Estate
agents, above all people, need education in order that the destruction of much that
is precious may be averted.
The Government has done well in appointing commissions for England, Scotland,
and Wales to inquire into and report on the condition of ancient monuments, but we
lag behind many other countries in the task of protecting and preserving the
memorials of the past.
In France national monuments of historic or artistic interest are scheduled under the
direction of the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. In cases in which a
monument is owned by a private individual, it usually may not be scheduled
without the consent of the owner, but if his consent is withheld the State Minister is
empowered to purchase compulsorily. No monument so scheduled may be
destroyed or subjected to works of restoration, repair, or alteration without the
consent of the Minister, nor may new buildings be annexed to it without permission
from the same quarter. Generally speaking, the Minister is advised by a
commission of historical monuments, consisting of leading officials connected with
fine arts, public buildings, and museums. Such a commission has existed since
1837, and very considerable sums of public money have been set apart to enable it
to carry on its work. In 1879 a classification of some 2500 national monuments was
made, and this classification has been adopted in the present law. It includes
megalithic remains, classical remains, and medieval, Renaissance, and modern
buildings and ruins.63
We do not suggest that in England we should imitate the very drastic restorations to
which some of the French abbeys and historic buildings are subjected. The
authorities have erred greatly in destroying so much original work and their
restorations, as in the case of Mont St. Michel, have been practically a rebuilding.
The Belgian people appear to have realized for a very long time the importance of
preserving their historic and artistic treasures. By a royal decree of 1824 bodies in
charge of church temporalities are reminded that they are managers merely, and
while they are urged to undertake in good time the simple repairs that are needed
for the preservation of the buildings in their charge, they are strictly forbidden to
demolish any ecclesiastical building without authority from the Ministry which
deals with the subject of the fine arts. By the same decree they are likewise
forbidden to alienate works of art or historical monuments placed in churches. Nine
years later, in 1835, in view of the importance of assuring the preservation of all
national monuments remarkable for their antiquity, their association, or their artistic
value, another decree was issued constituting a Royal Commission for the purpose
of advising as to the repairs required by such monuments. Nearly 200,000 francs
are annually voted for expenditure for these purposes. The strict application of
these precautionary measures has allowed a number of monuments of the highest
interest in their relation to art and archæology to be protected and defended, but it
does not appear that the Government controls in any way those monuments which
are in the hands of private persons.64
In Holland public money to the extent of five or six thousand pounds a year is spent
on preserving and maintaining national monuments and buildings of antiquarian
and architectural interest. In Germany steps are being taken which we might follow
with advantage in this country, to control and limit the disfigurement of landscapes
by advertisement hoardings.
A passage from the ministerial order of 1884 with reference to the restoration of
churches may be justly quoted:--
"If the restoration of a public building is to be completely successful, it
is absolutely essential that the person who directs it should combine
with an enlightened æsthetic sense an artistic capacity in a high degree,
and, moreover, be deeply imbued with feelings of veneration for all
that has come down to us from ancient times. If a restoration is carried
out without any real comprehension of the laws of architecture, the
result can only be a production of common and dreary artificiality,
recognizable perhaps as belonging to one of the architectural styles,
but wanting the stamp of true art, and, therefore, incapable of
awakening the enthusiasm of the spectator."
And again:--
"In consequence of the removal or disfigurement of monuments which
have been erected during the course of centuries--monuments which
served, as it were, as documents of the historical development of past
periods of culture, which have, moreover, a double interest and value if
left undisturbed on the spot where they were originally erected--the
sympathy of congregations with the history of their church is
diminished, and, a still more lamentable consequence, a number of
objects of priceless artistic value destroyed or squandered, whereby the
property of the church suffers a serious loss."
How much richer might we be here in England if only our central authorities had in
the past circulated these admirable doctrines!
Very wisely has the Danish Government prohibited the removal of stones from
monuments of historic interest for utilitarian purposes, such as is causing the rapid
disappearance of the remains on Dartmoor in this country; and the Greeks have
stringent regulations to ensure the preservation of antiquities, which are regarded as
national property, and may on no account be damaged either by owner or lessee. It
has actually been found necessary to forbid the construction of limekilns nearer
than two miles from any ancient ruins, in order to remove the temptation for the
filching of stones. In Italy there are stringent laws for the protection of historical
and ancient monuments. Road-mending is a cause of much destruction of
antiquarian objects in all countries, even in Italy, where the law has been invoked to
protect ancient monuments from the highway authorities.
We need not record the legal enactments of other Governments, so admirably
summarized by Mr. Bond in his paper read before the Dorset Natural History and
Antiquarian Field Club. We see what other countries much poorer than our own are
doing to protect their national treasures, and though the English Government has
been slow in realizing the importance of the ancient monuments of this country, we
believe that it is inclined to move in the right direction, and to do its utmost to
preserve those that have hitherto escaped the attacks of the iconoclasts, and the
heedlessness and stupidity of the Gallios "who care for none of these things."
When an old building is hopelessly dilapidated, what methods can be devised for its
restoration and preservation? To pull it down and rebuild it is to destroy its
historical associations and to make it practically a new structure. Happily science
has recently discovered a new method for the preserving of these old buildings
without destroying them, and this good angel is the grouting machine, the invention
of Mr. James Greathead, which has been the means of preventing much of
vanishing England. Grout, we understand, is a mixture of cement, sand, and water,
and the process of grouting was probably not unknown to the Romans. But the
grouting machine is a modern invention, and it has only been applied to ancient
buildings during the last six or seven years.65 It is unnecessary to describe its
mechanism, but its admirable results may be summarized. Suppose an old building
shows alarming cracks. By compressed air you blow out the old decayed mortar,
and then damping the masonry by the injection of water, you insert the nozzle of
the machine and force the grout into the cracks and cavities, and soon the whole
mass of decayed masonry is cemented together and is as sound as ever it was. This
method has been successfully applied to Winchester Cathedral, the old walls of
Chester, and to various churches and towers. It in no way destroys the
characteristics and features of the building, the weatherworn surfaces of the old
stones, their cracks and deformations, and even the moss and lichen which time has
planted on them need not be disturbed. Pointing is of no avail to preserve a
building, as it only enters an inch or two in depth. Underpinning is dangerous if the
building be badly cracked, and may cause collapse. But if you shore the structure
with timber, and then weld its stones together by applying the grouting machine,
you turn the whole mass of masonry into a monolith, and can then strengthen the
foundations in any way that may be found necessary. The following story of the
saving of an old church, as told by Mr. Fox, proclaims the merits of this scientific
invention better than any description can possibly do:--
"The ancient church of Corhampton, near Bishops Waltham, in
Hampshire, is an instance. This Saxon church, 1300 years old, was in a
sadly dilapidated condition. In the west gable there were large cracks,
one from the ridge to the ground, another nearer the side wall, both
wide enough for a man's arm to enter; whilst at the north-west angle
the Saxon work threatened to fall bodily off. The mortar of the walls
had perished through age, and the ivy had penetrated into the interior
of the church in every direction. It would have been unsafe to attempt
any examination of the foundations for fear of bringing down the
whole fabric; consequently the grouting machine was applied all over
the building. The grout escaped at every point, and it occupied the
attention of the masons both inside and outside to stop it promptly by
plastering clay on to the openings from which it was running.
"After the operation had been completed and the clay was removed,
the interior was found to be completely filled with cement set very
hard; and sufficient depth having been left for fixing the flint work
outside and tiling inside, the result was that no trace of the crack was
visible, and the walls were stronger and better than they had ever been
before. Subsequent steps were then taken to examine and, where
necessary, to underpin the walls, and the church is saved, as the vicar,
the Rev. H. Churton, said, 'all without moving one of the Saxon "long
and short" stones.'"
In our chapter on the delightful and picturesque old bridges that form such beautiful
features of our English landscapes, we deplored the destruction now going on
owing to the heavy traction-engines which some of them have to bear and the rush
and vibration of motor-cars which cause the decay of the mortar and injure their
stability. Many of these old bridges, once only wide enough for pack-horses to
cross, then widened for the accommodation of coaches, beautiful and graceful in
every way, across which Cavaliers rode to fight the Roundheads, and were alive
with traffic in the old coaching days, have been pulled down and replaced by the
hideous iron-girder arrangements which now disfigure so many of our streams and
rivers. In future, owing to this wonderful invention of the grouting machine, these
old bridges can be saved and made strong enough to last another five hundred
years. Mr. Fox tells us that an old Westmoreland bridge in a very bad condition has
been so preserved, and that the celebrated "Auld Brig o' Ayr" has been saved from
destruction by this means. A wider knowledge of the beneficial effects of this
wonderful machine would be of invaluable service to the country, and prevent the
passing away of much that in these pages we have mourned. By this means we may
be able to preserve our old and decaying buildings for many centuries, and hand
down to posterity what Ruskin called the great entail of beauty bequeathed to us.
Vanishing England has a sad and melancholy sound. Nevertheless, the examples
we have given of the historic buildings, and the beauties of our towns and villages,
prove that all has not yet disappeared which appeals to the heart and intellect of the
educated Englishman. And oftentimes the poor and unlearned appreciate the relics
that remain with quite as much keenness as their richer neighbours. A world
without beauty is a world without hope. To check vandalism, to stay the hand of the
iconoclast and destroyer, to prevent the invasion and conquest of the beauties
bequeathed to us by our forefathers by the reckless and ever-engrossing
commercial and utilitarian spirit of the age, are some of the objects of our book,
which may be useful in helping to preserve some of the links that connect our own
times with the England of the past, and in increasing the appreciation of the
treasures that remain by the Englishmen of to-day.
Abbey towns,210-29
Abbot's Ann, 381
---- Hospital, Guildford, 343
Abingdon, 278
---- bridge, 320
---- hospital, 344
---- archives of, 365
Age, a progressive, 2
Albans, St., Abbey, 212
---- inn at, 254
Aldeburgh, 18
Aldermaston, 196, 381
Alfriston, 256
Allington Castle, 124
Alnwick, 31
Almshouses, 333-48
Almsmen's liveries, 346
American rapacity, 6-7, 164, 183
Ancient Monuments Commission, 392
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Castles, 116
Armour, 184
Art treasures dispersed, 5
Ashbury camp, 208
Atleburgh, Norfolk, 147
Avebury, stone circle at, 207
---- manor-house, 180
Aylesbury, Vale of, 86, 91
---- inn at, 256
Bainbridge, inn at, 254
Banbury, 83
Barkham, 148
Barnard Castle, 119
Barrington Court, 189
Bartholomew's, St., Priory, 351-9
Bath, city of, 220
Beauty of English scenery vanishing, 383-91
Berkeley Castle, 118
Berwick-on-Tweed, 29, 31
Beverley, 303, 310
Bewcastle Cross, 288
Bledlow Crosses, 303
Bodiam Castle, 125
Bonfires of old deeds, 366
Bosham, 16
Bournemouth, 17
Bowthorpe, 139
Boxford, 145
Bradford-on-Avon, 142, 328
Branks, 315
Bray, Jesus Hospital at, 340
Bridges, destruction of, 10
---- old, 318-32
Bridgwater Bay, 17
Bridlington, 17
Bristol Cathedral, 220
Burford, 94
Burgh-next-Walton, 17
Burgh Castle, 112
Caister Castle, 126
Canals, 389
Canterbury Cathedral, 211
---- inns at, 248
Capel, Surrey, 82
Castles, old, 111-32
Cathedral cities, 210-29
Caversham bridge, 322
Chalfont St. Giles, 88
Charms of villages, 67
Chester, 50
Chests, church, 159
Chests in houses, 196
Chichester, 164
---- hospital at, 335
Chingford, Essex, 141
Chipping Campden, 345
Chipping monuments, 164
Church, a painted, 158
---- furniture, 158
---- plate, 160
Churches, Vanishing or Vanished, 133-65
Churchwarden's account-books, 366
Cinque Ports, 23
Cirencester, 270
Clipping churches, 378
Clock at Wells, 214
Cloth Fair, Smithfield, 356
Coast erosion, 15-27
Coastguards, their uses, 27
Cobham, 336
Coleshill bridge, 326
Colston Bassett, 139
Commonwealth, spoliation during the, 148, 220
Compton Wynyates, 174
Conway, 31
Corhampton church, 397
Cornwall, prehistoric remains in, 204
Corsham, 345
Cottages, beauties of old, 68, 108
Covehithe, 17
Coventry, 58, 255, 345
Cowper at Weston, 170
Cranbrook registers, 372
Crane bridge, Salisbury, 327
Cromer, 17
Crosses, 283-305
---- wayside, 293
---- market, 293
---- boundary, 300
---- at Cross-roads and Holy Wells, 300
---- sanctuary, 303
---- as guide-posts, 303
Crowhurst, 181
Croyland bridge, 324
Cucking stool, 314
Curious entries in registers, 373
Customs that are vanishing, 375-82
Deal, 86
Derby, West, stocks restored, 312
Devizes, inn at, 260
Dickens, C., and inns, 242
Disappearance of England, 15-27
Documents, disappearance of old, 364-74
Dover Castle, 117
Dowsing, W., spoliator, 148
Dunwich, 22
Eashing bridge, 327
Eastbourne, 17
Easter customs, 379
Easton Bavent, 17
Edwardian castles, 123
Elizabethan house, an, 104, 178
Ely fair, 363
---- registry plundered, 369
England, disappearance of, 15-27
Essex, 100
Estate agents, 10
Evesham, 223
Ewelme, 345
Exeter town hall, 280
Experience, a weird, 171
Fairs, vanishing, 349-63
Fastolfe, Sir John, 126
Felixstowe, 18
Fig Sunday, 379
Fires in houses, 166
Fishermen's Hospital, 342
Fitzstephen on Smithfield Fair, 352
Flagon, a remarkable, 194
Football in streets, 378
Forests destroyed, 386
Foreign governments and monuments, 392-5
Friday, Good, customs on, 379
Furniture, old, 196
---- church, 158
Galleting, 78
Garden cities, 384
Gates of Chester, 51
Geffery Almshouses, 337
Gibbet-irons, 316
Glastonbury, 147, 250
---- powder horn found at, 192
Gloucester, 252
Goodening custom, 377
Gorleston, 45
Gosforth Cross, 289
Grantham, inns at, 240
---- crosses at, 298
Greenwich, the "Ship" at, 260
Grouting machine, 396
Guildford, 343
Guildhalls, 268
Guildhall at Lynn, 38
Gundulf, a builder of castles, 115
Hall, Bishop, his palace, 246
Halton Cross, 291
Hampton, 17
Happisburgh, 17
Hardy, T., on restoration, 156
Hartwell House, 196
Heckfield, 160
Herne Bay, 17
Hever Castle, 124
Higham Ferrers, 335
Hints to Churchwardens, 153
Holinshed quoted, 177, 191
Holman Hunt, Mr., on bridges, 318
Honiton Fair, 360
Hornby Cross, 292
Horsham slates, 80
Horsmonden, Kent, 82
Hospitals, old, 333-48
Houses, old, 104, 171
---- destroyed, 5
---- half-timber, 57, 74, 107
Hungate, St. Peter, Norwich, 140
Hungerford, 308, 314
Huntingdon, inn at, 240
---- bridge at, 327
Ilsley, West, sheep fair, 362
Inns, signs of, 262
---- old, 230-65
---- retired from business, 259
---- at Banbury, 84
Intwood, Norfolk, 140
Ipswich, 45
Irving, Washington, on Inns, 234
Ivy, evils of, 141
Jessop, spoliator, 150
Jousts at Smithfield, 353
Kent bridges, 326
Keswick, Norfolk, 140
Kilnsea, 17, 21
Kirby Bedon, 139
Kirkstead, 141
Leeds Cross, 290
---- Castle, 123
Leominster, 314
Levellers at Burford, 97
Lichgate at Chalfont, 90
Links with past severed, 3
Liscombe, Dorset, 140
Littleport, 86
Llanrwst bridge, 320
Llanwddyn vale destroyed, 384
London, vanishing, 11
---- churches, 135
---- growth of, 70
---- Inns, 238
---- Livery Companies' Almshouses, 338
---- Paul's Cross, 304
---- St. Bartholomew's Fair, 351-9
---- water supply threatens a village, 385
Lowestoft, 150
Lynn Bay, 17
Lynn Regis, 35, 342
Mab's Cross, Wigan, 304
Maidstone, 280
Maidenhead bridge, 320
Maldon, 103
Manor-houses, 177
Mansions, old, 166-202
Marlborough, inn at, 259
Martyrs burnt at Smithfield, 353
Megalithic remains, 203
Memory, folk, instance of, 208
Menhirs, 203, 204
Merchant Guilds, 267
Milton's Cottage, 88
"Mischief, the Load of," 262
Monmouthshire castles, 128
Mothering Sunday, 379
Mottes, Norman, 111, 115
Mumming at Christmas, 376
Municipal buildings, old, 266-82
National Trust for the Protection of Places of Historic Interest, 141, 189, 278, 281,
Newbury, stocks at, 309
---- town hall, 274
Newcastle, 111
---- walls, 34
New Forest partly destroyed, 386
Newton-by-Corton, 17
Norham Castle, 120
Norton St. Philip, 255
Nottingham Goose Fair, 360
Norwich, 244, 271
---- hospitals at, 342
Ockwells, Berks, 187
Olney bridge, 330
Orford Castle, 118
Oundle, 338
Oxford, 70
---- St. Giles's Fair, 360
Palimpsest brasses, 147
Palm Sunday customs, 379
Pakefield, 17
Paston family, 126, 140, 246
Penshurst, 181
Pevensey Castle, 112
Plaster, the use of, 180
Plough Monday, 378
Pontefract Castle, 121
Poole, 17
Porchester Castle, 112
Ports and harbours, 84
Portsmouth, 86
Poulton-in-the-Fylde, 311
Pounds, 312
Prehistoric remains, destruction of, 203-9
Preservation of registers, 374
Progress, 2
Punishments, old-time, 306-17
Quainton, Bucks, 337
Radcot bridge, 323
Ranton, house at, 107
---- priory, 138
Ravensburgh, 20, 21
Reading, guild hall at, 274
---- Fair, 360
Rebels' heads on gateways, 32
Reculver, 23
Reformation, iconoclasm at, 145, 218
Register books, parish, 368
Restoration, evils of, 9, 10, 151, 153, 156, 220
Richard II., murder of, 121
Richmond, 111, 260
Ringstead, 140
Rochester, 35, 248
Rollright stones, 204
Roman fortresses, 114
Rood-screens removed, 158
Roudham, 140
Rows at Yarmouth, 42
---- ---- Portsmouth, 86
Ruskin, 3, 67, 198, 200
Ruthwell Cross, 289
Rye, 60
Saffron Walden, 100
Salisbury, halls of guilds at, 281
Sandwich, 34
St. Albans Cathedral, 212
---- inn at, 254
St. Audrey's laces, 363
St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, 351-9
St. Margaret's Bay, 17
Salisbury, halls of guilds at, 281, 294
Sandwich, 34
Saxon churches, 144
Scenery, vanishing of English, 3, 383-91
Scold's bridle, 315
Sea-serpent at Heybridge, 104
Selsea, 23
"Seven Stars" at Manchester, 252
Shingle, flow of, 26
Shrewsbury, 52, 270
Shrivenham, Berks, 165
Shrovetide customs, 378
Signboards, 264
Sieges of towns, 32
Simnels, 379
Skegness, 21
Skipton, 310
Smithfield Fair, 351-9
Smuggling, 258
Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings, 141, 320, 326
Somerset, Duke of, spoliator, 146
Somerset crosses, 296
Sonning bridges, 318
Southport, 16
Southwell, inn at, 144
Southwold, 17, 18
Staircases, old, 196
Staffordshire churches, 136
Stamford, hospitals at, 336
Stilton, inn at, 243
Stocks, 306-17
-- in literature, 307
Stonehenge, 205
Storeys, projecting, 72
Stourbridge Fair, 362
Stow Green Fair, 362
Strategic position of castles, 114
Streets and lanes, in, 67-110
Stump Cross, 304
Suffolk coast, 20
Surrey cottages, 76
Sussex coast, 17
Sussex, Robert, Earl of, spoliator, 147
Swallowfield Park, 194
Tancred, description of an inn, 236
Taunton Castle, 129
Tewkesbury, inns at, 252
Thame, 91, 367
Thatch for roofing, 78
Thorpe-in-the-Fields, 139
Tile-hung cottages, 77
Tournaments at Smithfield, 353
Towns, old walled, 28-66
---- abbey, 210-29
---- decayed, 266
---- halls, 266-82
Turpin's ride to York, 240
Tyneside, coast erosion at, 21
Udimore, Sussex, 94
Uxbridge, inn at, 256
Viking legends, 290, 291
Walberswick, Suffolk, 148
Walled towns, old, 28-66
Walls, city, destroyed, 12
Wallingford, 276, 313
Warwick, 70, 159
Wash, land gaining on sea, 16
Water-clock, 196
Well customs, 381
Wells, cross at, 297
Wells Cathedral, 213-16
Welsh castles, 130
Weston house, 170
Whipping-posts, 306-17
White Horse Hill, 206
Whitewash, the era of, 157
Whittenham Clumps, 207
Whittenham, Little, 152
Whitling church, 139
Whittington College, 338
Winchester, St. Cross, 334
Winchmore Hill Woods, destroyed, 386
Window tax, 180
Winster, 278
Witney Butter Cross, 297
Wirral, Cheshire, 25
Wokingham, 277
---- Lucas's Hospital at, 340
Wood, Anthony, at Thame, 93
Wymondham, 256, 297
Yarmouth, 17, 40, 147, 342
York, 48
---- walls of, 34
Yorkshire coast, 17
Ypres Tower, Rye, 64
1 History of Oxfordshire, by J. Meade Falkner.
2 It is now in possession of Mr. Kenneth M. Clark, by whose permission
the accompanying plan, reproduced from the Memorials of Old Suffolk,
was made.
3 Memorials of Old Suffolk, edited by V.B. Redstone, p. 226.
4 The Builder, April 16, 1904.
5 History of Renaissance Architecture, by R. Blomfield.
6 Cf. Memorials of Suffolk, edited by V.B. Redstone.
7 The Chester folk have a proverb, "When the daughter is stolen, shut
Pepper-gate"--referring to the well-known story of a daughter of a
Mayor of Chester having made her escape with her lover through this
gate, which he ordered to be closed, but too late to prevent the fugitives.
8 The Rev. T. Auden, Shrewsbury (Methuen and Co.).
9 Ibid., p. 48.
10 The Charm of the English Village (Batsford).
11 The Charm of the English Village, pp. 50-7.
12 Old West Surrey, by Gertrude Jekyll, p. 206.
13 Highways and Byways in Sussex, by E.V. Lucas.
14 I fear the poet's plans will never be passed by the rural district council.
15 The rood-loft has unfortunately disappeared.
16 Excursions in Essex, published in 1819, states: "The old market cross
and gaol are taking down. The market cross has long been considered a
17 These tiles have now found a place in the excellent local museum.
18 A payment to the superior lord for protection.
19 Cf. Memorials of Old Suffolk, p. 65.
20 Grose's Antiquities.
21 Taunton and its Castle, by D.P. Alford (Memorials of Old Somerset),
p. 149.
22 A fine linen cloth made in Brittany (cf. Coriolanus, Act ii. sc. 1).
23 A rich sort of stuff interwoven with gold and silver, made at Tournay,
which was formerly called Dorneck, in Flanders.
24 An alloy of copper and zinc.
25 Large standard candlesticks.
26 The Lent cloth, hung before the altar during Lent.
27 A Pax.
28 History of the Church in England, p. 401.
29 Doubtless our author means Norman.
30 A china punch-bowl was actually presented by Sir T. Drake to be used
as a font at Woodbury, Devon.
31 English Church Furniture, by Dr. Cox and A. Harvey.
32 The Parish Councillor, an article by Dr. Jessop, September 20, 1895.
33 Canon F.E. Warren recently reported to the Suffolk Institute of
Archæology that while he was dining at a friend's house he saw two
chalices on the table.
34 Memorials of Old Warwickshire, edited by Miss Alice Dryden.
35 The present Marquis of Northampton in his book contends that the
house was mainly built in the reign of Henry VII by Edmund Compton,
Sir William's father, and that Sir William only enlarged and added to the
house. We have not space to record the arguments in favour of or against
this view.
36 The Progresses of James I, by Nichols.
37 Old-time Parson, by P.H. Ditchfield, 1908.
38 Country Life, September 17th, 1904.
39 Farmers.
40 Stand away.
41 One just.
42 The Builder, March 6, 1909.
43 It is erroneously styled Bishop Hall's Palace. An episcopal palace is
the official residence of the bishop in his cathedral city. Not even a
country seat of a bishop is correctly called a palace, much less the
residence of a bishop when ejected from his see.
44 History of Newbury, by Walter Money, F.S.A.
45 Report of the State of Lancashire in 1590 (Chetham Society, Vol.
XCVI, p. 5).
46 Ancient Crosses of Lancashire, by Henry Taylor.
47 Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire, by Henry Taylor,
48 Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire, by Henry Taylor,
49 Ibid.
50 Act of Parliament, 1405.
51 History of Hungerford, by W. Money, p. 38.
52 Notes and Queries, 4th series, X, p. 6.
53 Ancient Crosses and Holy Wells of Lancashire, by H. Taylor, F.S.A.,
p. 37.
54 History of Skipton, W.H. Dawson, quoted in Bygone Punishments, p.
55 The corporation of Hungerford is peculiar, the head official being
termed the constable, who corresponded with the mayor in less original
56 Act of Parliament 25 George II.
57 Ferry.
58 Mr. Nisbett gives a good account of the hospital in Memorials of Old
Hampshire, and Mr. Champneys fully describes the buildings in the
Architectural Review, October, 1903, and April, 1904.
59 The Treasury, November, 1907, an article on hospitals by Dr.
Hermitage Day.
60 Highways and Byways in Berkshire.
61 Old English Customs Extant at the Present Time (Methuen and Co.).