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History and Systems of Psychology

CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung

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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Lesson 31
CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Carl Gustav Jung (1870-1961)
Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung was born in Switzerland in 1870. Jung wanted to study archaeology at university, but his
family was too poor to send him further than Basel, where they did not teach this subject, so instead Jung
studied medicine at the University of Basel. Towards the end of studies here he decided to specialize in
psychiatric medicine. He later worked in a psychiatric hospital in Zurich.
Following World War I, Jung became a worldwide traveler. He visited Northern Africa shortly after, then
New Mexico and Kenya in the mid-1920s. In 1938, he delivered lectures on Psychology and Religion, at
Yale University. During this period of his life Jung visited India. His experience in India led him to become
fascinated and deeply involved in Eastern philosophies and religions, helping him to come up with key
concepts of his ideology, including integrating spirituality into everyday life and appreciation of the
unconscious.
Jung was impressed with Freud; he met Freud, worked and delivered lectures with him, but disagreed and
developed his own theoretical framework and method of treatment, called Analytical Psychology. Jung died
in 1961 in Zurich, Switzerland.
Like Freud, Jung also divided the mind into conscious and unconscious parts, but according to him
unconscious has different layers.
The upper layer is the personal unconscious.
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And the deeper layer is the collective unconscious.
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The personal unconscious has repressed materials, and the collective unconscious has experiences of
forefathers and generations in the form of archetypes. The collective unconscious could be thought of as
the DNA of the human psyche. Just as all humans share a common physical heritage and predisposition
towards specific physical forms (like having two legs, a heart, etc.) so do all humans have a common
psychological predisposition. However, unlike the quantifiable information that composes DNA, the
collective unconscious is composed of archetypes.
In contrast to the objective material world, the subjective realm of archetypes can not be fully understood
through quantitative modes of research. Instead it can be revealed more fully through an examination of the
symbolic communications of the human psyche in art, dreams, religion, myth, and the themes of human
relational/behavioral patterns. Devoting his life to the task of exploring and understanding the collective
unconscious, Jung theorized that certain symbolic themes exist in every individual. These themes, according
to Jung, are called archetypes.
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History and Systems of Psychology ­ PSY502
VU
Some archetypes given by Jung are:
Anima (woman in man) and Animus (man in woman)
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Shadow
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Jung identified the anima as being the unconscious feminine component of men and the animus as the
unconscious masculine component in women. However, this is rarely taken as a literal definition; in modern
era many Jungian practitioners believe that every person has both an anima and an animus. Jung stated that
the anima and animus act as guides to the unconscious unified self.
The shadow is an unconscious complex that is defined as the repressed and suppressed aspects of the
conscious self. There are constructive and destructive types of shadow. On the destructive side, it often
represents everything that the conscious person does not wish to acknowledge within themselves. For
instance, someone who identifies as being kind has a shadow that is harsh or unkind. Conversely, an
individual who is brutal has a kind shadow. The shadow of persons who are convinced that they are ugly
appears to be beautiful. On the constructive side, the shadow may represent hidden positive influences. So a
total personality is the result of personal unconscious and collective unconscious with the influence and
impact of all the archetypes.
Based upon his experiments, observations and clinical practice, he formulated his personality theory. He
stated that personality has two types:
Introvert
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Extrovert
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The extrovert orientation "finds meaning outside the self", in the surrounding world, whereas the introvert
is introspective and finds it within.
He also theorized that personality has four functions:
Sensory function
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Thinking function
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Emoting function
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And intuiting function
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The sensory function refers to the rational part of the personality, where logic plays the dominant part.
Emoting functions refers to the emotional part of the consciousness. The intuiting function refers to the
ability to foresee things.
Therefore, according to Jung, there are eight personality types, depending upon introversion or extroversion
and the four functions of each type namely:
1)
Introverted Sensory
2)
Introverted Thinking
3)
Introverted Emoting
4)
Introverted Intuiting
5)
Extroverted Sensory
6)
Extroverted Thinking
7)
Extroverted Emoting
8)
Extroverted Intuiting
These were some of the contributions of Carl Jung.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Methodology, Grading, Course Overview up to Midterm
  2. ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY/PSYCHOLOGY:Socrates, Plato
  3. GREEK THINKERS:Aristotle, Contiguity, Contrast
  4. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Saint Augustine, Avicenna
  5. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 5TH TO 12TH CENTURY:Al-Ghazali, Ibn-Rushd, Averroes
  6. RENAISSANCE:Rene Descartes
  7. ASSOCIATIONISTS:Thomas Hobbes, John Locke
  8. ASSOCIATIONISTS:David Hume, FRENCH REVOLUTION, Denis Diderot
  9. GERMAN CONTRIBUTION:Wilhelm Liebniz, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Hegel
  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION:RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  11. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Ivan Pavlov, Reflex, Acquisition
  12. RUSSIAN CONTRIBUTIONS:Vladimir Bekhterev
  13. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES ON PSYCHOLOGY:Charles Darwin, Gustav Fechner
  14. STRUCTURALIST SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY:Wilhelm Wundt
  15. FUNCTIONALISM:William James, John Dewey
  16. EUROPEAN FUNCTIONALISTS:David Katz, Edgar Rubin, Jean Piaget
  17. BEHAVIORISM:Edward Lee Thorndike, Law of belongingness
  18. BEHAVIORISM:Albert Weiss, Edwin Holt, Learning, Canalization, Walter Hunter
  19. BEHAVIORISM:J.B.Watson
  20. NEO-BEHAVIOURISTS:Clark Hull, Edward Tolman, Edwin Gutherie
  21. NEO-BEHAVIORISTS:B.F. Skinner, Karl Lashley, Donald Hebb, Hobart Mowrer
  22. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Max Wertheimer, Similarity, Proximity, Closure
  23. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY:Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka, Edward De Bono
  24. GESTALT SCHOOL AND DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY:Kurt Lewin, DYNAMIC PSYCHOLOGY
  25. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Leon Vygotsky, Sergei Rubenstein
  26. HISTORICO-EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY:Alexei Leontiev, K.M Bykov
  27. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL DISORDERS
  28. SCIENTIFIC LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS:Philippe Pinel, Sameul Tuke
  29. SIGMUND FREUD AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT:The Superego
  30. SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTICAL MOVEMENT:Anna Freud
  31. CARL JUNG AND ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  32. JUNG’S ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY:Carl Gustav Jung
  33. ALFRED ADLER AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY:Alfred Adler
  34. NEO-FREUDIANS:Harry Stack Sullivan, Karen Horney
  35. NEO-FREUDIANS:Karen Horney, Erich Fromm
  36. ERIKSON and MORENO:J.L. Moreno, Protagonist, Audience, Role playing
  37. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY:Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Positive Psychology
  38. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT
  39. MODERN TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT:Biological Approaches
  40. ANTI-PSYCHIATRY MOVEMENT:D.L. Rosenhan, R.D. Laing, Aaron Esterson
  41. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD:Frantz Fanon
  42. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE THIRD WORLD CHINA AND PAKISTAN
  43. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21st CENTURY
  44. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Consumer Psychology
  45. PSYCHOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY:Sports Psychology, Positive Psychology