Human Relations

BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 18
Difference between leadership and managerial ship:
It is appropriate to mention here the difference between leadership and managerialship, though the terms
are often used interchangeably. The distinction according to Kanungo & Conger 1995 is based on two
different criteria. The first criterion refers to the type of roles played by leaders and managers in
organizations. The manager plays the role of caretaker or system stabilizer responsible for day-to-day
routine maintenance, supervision and administration of the existing system of operation. Leaders, however,
play the role of change agents responsible for effectively bringing about changes or transformations in the
existing system and its members.
The second criterion for distinguishing leadership from managerialship is based on the nature of influence
on the organization and its members.
Theories of leadership:
Let us have a look at the three types of theories of the leadership. Although we are not directly concerned
with first two types of theories, yet they are being presented for a brief introduction. The third type of
theory is directly related to our course.
1. Big man theory:
This kind of theory is about the leaders who are called leaders by birth or born leaders. This type of
leadership skill is not acquired through training. It is about the leaders who bring revolutionary changes at
the mass level. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a born leader. He brought a mass level of change in the
society. Hitler and Churchill also belong to the category of born leaders.
2. Contingency theory:
In this category fall those individuals who become leaders out of circumstances. They are not born leaders.
Sometimes situation arise and they become leader to fill the vacuum created by the circumstances. A recent
example of this type of leadership is of the President Karzai.
3. Trait theory:
In this type of theory behavioural traits or characteristics are taught and learnt through training. This theory
is related to the skill which can be learnt to achieve personal and organizational goals.
Behaviours and Skills of Effective Leaders:
The behaviours and skills of leaders contribute to productivity and morale in most situations. In addition to
personal attributes, a leader has to do things that influence group members to achieve good performance.
Managers in their supervisory and administrative roles use various rewards and sanctions to induce
compliance in others. This manner of influencing others' behaviours is known as `transactional influence'.
Leaders on the other hand, use `transformational influence' to bring about changes in others' attitudes,
values and behaviour. This is done essentially through effectively articulating future goals or visions and
empowering others to work toward the achievement of these goals (Kanungo and Mendonca, 1994). A
manager has to perform various roles at one time. The role is the social position a person occupies in the
social structure while interacting with other people. He has to understand the behaviours of the workers and
organization as an entity.
We will discuss nine characteristics that make help great leaders.
1. Practice Strong Ethics:
Being trustworthy facilitates a leader practicing strong ethics, the study of moral obligation, or separating
right from wrong. Workers are more likely to trust an ethical leader. Good ethics serve as a positive model
for group members, thus strengthening the organization. Ethical leaders help group members avoid
common ethical pitfalls such as lying, divulging confidential information, and covering up accidents. An
effective leader practices the Golden Rule.
Human Relations­ MGMT611
2. Direction Setting:
Given that leaders are supposed to bring about change, they must guide people in the right direction,
including establishing a vision.
3. Develop Partnerships with People:
In a partnership, the leaders and group members are connected in such a way that the power between
them is approximately balanced. A partnership involves an exchange of purpose, a right to say no for side,
joint accountability, and absolute honesty.
4. Help Group Members Reach Goals and Achieve Satisfaction:
The leader smoothes out the path to goal attainment, and also looks out for the satisfaction of group
members. Another way of helping group members achieve goals is to reduce frustrating barriers to work
5. Set High Expectations:
It can make people achieve a lot. Group members live up (or down) to the leader's expectations according
to the Pygmalion effect. The manager's expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy in part because
when a leader expresses faith in group members, the members become more confident.
6. Give Frequent Feedback on Performance:
Feedback is informational and rewarding. Effective leaders inform employees how they can improve and
praise them for things done right. Feedback is an informal kind of reward which encourages the employees
or workers.
7. Manage a Crisis Effectively:
Crisis management, including managing adversity, is becoming the mode in organizations. Leaders should
be capable of handling difficult situations courageously and effectively.
8. Ask the Right Questions:
Leaders can make a major contribution by asking the right questions. Although being knowledgeable about
the group task is important, there are many times when asking group members penetrating questions is
more important. This is especially true because in today's complex and rapidly changing business
environment, the collective intelligence of group members is needed to solve problems.
9. Be a Servant Leader:
A humanitarian approach to leadership is to be a servant leader, one who serves group members by
working on their behalf to achieve their goals, not his or her goals. Help others to achieve their goals.
Developing leadership potential:
It is about creating conditions under which all your followers can perform independently and effectively
toward a common objective.
Servant leadership stems naturally from a commitment to service.
1.  General education and specific training:
You should have general information and understanding about your field. You should have specific training
of your job related activities so that you could lead and guide your team members.
2.  Leadership development programmes:
Leadership skills can be acquired by taking courses or programmes on leadership.
3.  Acquire broad experience:
A leader should have broader knowledge of the things in order to handle or run the affairs of the
organization smoothly.
4.  Modeling effective leaders:
You should have some models in your mind that you admire as good leaders. You should try to internalize
the characteristics of those leaders.
5.  Self-development of leadership characteristics and behaviour:
Study leadership characteristics and behaviour, and target one or two for improvement through self-
determination and self-monitoring of behaviour.
6.  Practice a little leadership:
Look for opportunities to exert a small amount of helpful leadership in contrast to waiting for opportunities
to accomplish extraordinary deeds. Mentoring would be an example of practicing a little leadership.
Help your leader lead:
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Leaders need assistance so they can do a good job, and providing this assistance provides some leadership
8.  Become an integrated human being:
The leader is first and foremost a fully functioning person. Leadership development is therefore the process
of self-development. As a result, the process of becoming a leader is similar to the process of becoming an
integrated human being.
Suggestions for becoming more charismatic leader
There are certain leadership attributes which are the inner or personal qualities of the leaders. These
attributes include values, character, motives, habits, traits, motives, style, behaviours, and skills etc. Here we
discuss some more characteristics to be a more charismatic leader.
1. Communicate a vision
2. Make frequent use of metaphors and analogies
3. Inspire trust and confidence
4. Be highly energetic and goal oriented
5. Be emotionally expressive and warm
6. Make ample use of true stories
7. Smile frequently
8. Be candid
9. Make everybody feel that he or she is important
10. Multiply the effectiveness of your handshake
11. Stand up straight and also use non-verbal signals of self-confidence
12. Be willing to take personal risks
13. Be self-promotional
Dubrin, A.J. (2005). Human Relations: Career and Personal Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,
Kanungo, R. N. & Conger, J.A.( 1995). Modal orientation in leadership research and their implication
for developing countries. In R.N. Kanungo (ed.), New approaches to employee management, Vol. 3:
Employee management in developing countries, 155-170. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People